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Retinoic acid is synthesized from retinaldehyde by several different dehydrogenases, which are arranged in conserved spatial and developmentally regulated patterns. Here we show for the mouse that a class-1 aldehyde dehydrogenase, characterized by oxidation and disulfiram sensitivity, is found in the brain at high levels only in the basal forebrain. It is(More)
Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (RALDH-2) is a major retinoic acid generating enzyme in the early embryo. Here we report the immunolocalization of this enzyme (RALDH-2-IR) in stage 6-29 chicken embryos; we also show that tissues that exhibit strong RALDH-2-IR in the embryo contain RALDH-2 and synthesize retinoic acid. RALDH-2-IR indicates dynamic and(More)
Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (RALDH-2) was identified as a major retinoic acid generating enzyme in the early embryo. Here we report the expression domains of the RALDH-2 gene during mouse embryogenesis, which are likely to indicate regions of endogenous retinoic acid (RA) synthesis. During early gastrulation, RALDH-2 is expressed in the mesoderm(More)
In the central nervous system (CNS) the function of retinoic acid, the active metabolite of vitamin A, is best understood from its action in guiding embryonic development; as development comes to completion, retinoic acid signaling declines. However, it is increasingly recognized that this signaling mechanism does not disappear in the adult brain but(More)
Determination of the dorso-ventral dimension of the vertebrate retina is known to involve retinoic acid (RA), in that high RA activates expression of a ventral retinaldehyde dehydrogenase and low RA of a dorsal dehydrogenase. Here we show that in the early eye vesicle of the mouse embryo, expression of the dorsal dehydrogenase is preceded by, and(More)
Most retinoic acid (RA) in the embryonic mouse is generated by three retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs). RALDH1 (also called E1, AHD2 or ALDH1) is expressed in the dorsal retina, and RALDH2 (V2, ALDH11) generates most RA in the embryonic trunk. The third one, RALDH3 (V1), synthesizes the bulk of RA in the head of the early embryo. We show here that(More)
The transcriptional activator retinoic acid (RA) has been shown to influence the early patterning of the vertebrate eye. Models for the establishment of the retinofugal projection postulate gradients of cell-surface markers across the retinal surface that are expressed by ganglion cells and mediate the correct connection of fibers within central target(More)
The developing eye is known to be rich in retinoic acid (RA), and perturbations in RA levels during formation of the optic primordia, as well as RA receptor mutations, cause retinal malformations, especially in ventral eye regions. To test the hypothesis that RA plays a role in the establishment of ventral retinal characteristics, we examined several dorsal(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) is a potent regulator of gene transcription and it plays a pivotal role in neural development. As the compound is active at nanomolar concentrations, standard RA detection methods based on high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) are poorly suited for neurodevelopmental questions and single RA measurements require pooling of tissues(More)
The active component of the acne drug Accutane is 13-cis-retinoic acid (RA), and it is highly teratogenic for the developing central nervous system. Very little is known, however, regarding the effect of this drug on the adult brain. Regions of the brain that may be susceptible to RA are those that continue to generate new neurons. In the adult mouse,(More)