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Retinoic acid is synthesized from retinaldehyde by several different dehydrogenases, which are arranged in conserved spatial and developmentally regulated patterns. Here we show for the mouse that a class-1 aldehyde dehydrogenase, characterized by oxidation and disulfiram sensitivity, is found in the brain at high levels only in the basal forebrain. It is(More)
Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (RALDH-2) is a major retinoic acid generating enzyme in the early embryo. Here we report the immunolocalization of this enzyme (RALDH-2-IR) in stage 6-29 chicken embryos; we also show that tissues that exhibit strong RALDH-2-IR in the embryo contain RALDH-2 and synthesize retinoic acid. RALDH-2-IR indicates dynamic and(More)
Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (RALDH-2) was identified as a major retinoic acid generating enzyme in the early embryo. Here we report the expression domains of the RALDH-2 gene during mouse embryogenesis, which are likely to indicate regions of endogenous retinoic acid (RA) synthesis. During early gastrulation, RALDH-2 is expressed in the mesoderm(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) promotes growth and differentiation in many developing tissues but less is known about its influence on CNS regeneration. We investigated the possible involvement of RA in rat spinal cord injury (SCI) using the New York University (NYU) impactor to induce mild or moderate spinal cord contusion injury. Changes in RA at the lesion site were(More)
In mammalian peripheral nerves a crush lesion causes interactions between injured neurons, Schwann cells and haematogenous macrophages that can lead to successful axonal regeneration. We suggest that the transcriptional activator retinoic acid (RA), takes part in gene regulation after peripheral nerve injury and that RA signalling is activated via the(More)
Most retinoic acid (RA) in the embryonic mouse is generated by three retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs). RALDH1 (also called E1, AHD2 or ALDH1) is expressed in the dorsal retina, and RALDH2 (V2, ALDH11) generates most RA in the embryonic trunk. The third one, RALDH3 (V1), synthesizes the bulk of RA in the head of the early embryo. We show here that(More)
The transcriptional activator retinoic acid (RA) has been shown to influence the early patterning of the vertebrate eye. Models for the establishment of the retinofugal projection postulate gradients of cell-surface markers across the retinal surface that are expressed by ganglion cells and mediate the correct connection of fibers within central target(More)
The developing eye is known to be rich in retinoic acid (RA), and perturbations in RA levels during formation of the optic primordia, as well as RA receptor mutations, cause retinal malformations, especially in ventral eye regions. To test the hypothesis that RA plays a role in the establishment of ventral retinal characteristics, we examined several dorsal(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) is a potent regulator of gene transcription and it plays a pivotal role in neural development. As the compound is active at nanomolar concentrations, standard RA detection methods based on high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) are poorly suited for neurodevelopmental questions and single RA measurements require pooling of tissues(More)
Retinoic acid (RA) is essential for both embryonic and adult growth, activating gene transcription via specific nuclear receptors. It is generated, via a retinaldehyde intermediate, from retinol (vitamin A). RA levels require precise regulation by controlled synthesis and catabolism, and when RA concentrations deviate from normal, in either direction,(More)