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Though stuttering is manifest in its motor characteristics, the cause of stuttering may not relate purely to impairments in the motor system as stuttering frequency is increased by linguistic factors, such as syntactic complexity and length of utterance, and decreased by changes in perception, such as masking or altering auditory feedback. Using functional(More)
It has been known for at least a hundred years that the speech of a person who stammers becomes more fluent when alterations are made to the speaking environment. Alterations that lead to an improvement in fluency include a) noises that prevent a speaker hearing his or her own voice, and b) manipulations to the sound of a speaker's voice before it is heard.(More)
  • Peter Howell
  • 2004
In this article, a selection of theoretical approaches about stuttering is examined. One way of characterizing theories is in terms of whether the problem of stuttering arises at the linguistic or motor levels or in the interaction between the two. A second contrast between theories is in terms of whether they link production together with perception(More)
PURPOSE The contribution of genetic factors in the persistence of and early recovery from stuttering was assessed. METHOD Data from the Twins Early Development Study were employed. Parental reports regarding stuttering were collected at ages 2, 3, 4, and 7 years, and were used to classify speakers into recovered and persistent groups. Of 12,892 children(More)
Dysfluencies on function words in the speech of people who stutter mainly occur when function words precede, rather than follow, content words (Au-Yeung, Howell, & Pilgrim, 1998). It is hypothesized that such function word dysfluencies occur when the plan for the subsequent content word is not ready for execution. Repetition and hesitation on the function(More)
Stuttering on function words was examined in 51 people who stutter. The people who stutter were subdivided into young (2 to 6 years), middle (6 to 9 years), and older (9 to 12 years) child groups; teenagers (13 to 18 years); and adults (20 to 40 years). As reported by previous researchers, children up to about age 9 stuttered more on function words(More)
Rise times of voiceless affricates and fricatives were measured when the test material occurred in sentences, in isolated words, and in isolated nonsense syllables. As has been reported previously the rise times of affricates were significantly shorter than those of fricatives. Rise times varied with the type of test material and for all types of material(More)
White matter tracts connecting areas involved in speech and motor control were examined using diffusion-tensor imaging in a sample of people who stutter (n=29) who were heterogeneous with respect to age, sex, handedness and stuttering severity. The goals were to replicate previous findings in developmental stuttering and to extend our knowledge by(More)