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Though stuttering is manifest in its motor characteristics, the cause of stuttering may not relate purely to impairments in the motor system as stuttering frequency is increased by linguistic factors, such as syntactic complexity and length of utterance, and decreased by changes in perception, such as masking or altering auditory feedback. Using functional(More)
It has been known for at least a hundred years that the speech of a person who stammers becomes more fluent when alterations are made to the speaking environment. Alterations that lead to an improvement in fluency include a) noises that prevent a speaker hearing his or her own voice, and b) manipulations to the sound of a speaker's voice before it is heard.(More)
  • Peter Howell
  • Contemporary issues in communication science and…
  • 2004
In this article, a selection of theoretical approaches about stuttering is examined. One way of characterizing theories is in terms of whether the problem of stuttering arises at the linguistic or motor levels or in the interaction between the two. A second contrast between theories is in terms of whether they link production together with perception(More)
PURPOSE The contribution of genetic factors in the persistence of and early recovery from stuttering was assessed. METHOD Data from the Twins Early Development Study were employed. Parental reports regarding stuttering were collected at ages 2, 3, 4, and 7 years, and were used to classify speakers into recovered and persistent groups. Of 12,892 children(More)
Dysfluencies on function words in the speech of people who stutter mainly occur when function words precede, rather than follow, content words (Au-Yeung, Howell, & Pilgrim, 1998). It is hypothesized that such function word dysfluencies occur when the plan for the subsequent content word is not ready for execution. Repetition and hesitation on the function(More)
In the following two chapters, we present an overview of the EXPLAN theory. The main focus of EXPLAN is on fluent speech control (Howell & Au-Yeung submitted; Howell, Rosen, Hannigan & Rustin 2000; Howell & Sackin 2000, submitted) but it is also relevant to diagnosis (Au-Yeung, Howell & Pilgrim 1998; Howell, Au-Yeung, Davis, Charles, Sackin, Williams, Cook,(More)
Stuttering on function words was examined in 51 people who stutter. The people who stutter were subdivided into young (2 to 6 years), middle (6 to 9 years), and older (9 to 12 years) child groups; teenagers (13 to 18 years); and adults (20 to 40 years). As reported by previous researchers, children up to about age 9 stuttered more on function words(More)
Speakers change the level of their voice when they listen to noise or hear their own speech amplified: When noise level is increased the voice becomes louder, whilst the response to speech amplification is a reduction of voice level. The question posed here is whether, when the level of various sounds concurrent with vocalisation is raised, the direction of(More)
White matter tracts connecting areas involved in speech and motor control were examined using diffusion-tensor imaging in a sample of people who stutter (n=29) who were heterogeneous with respect to age, sex, handedness and stuttering severity. The goals were to replicate previous findings in developmental stuttering and to extend our knowledge by(More)