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Though stuttering is manifest in its motor characteristics, the cause of stuttering may not relate purely to impairments in the motor system as stuttering frequency is increased by linguistic factors, such as syntactic complexity and length of utterance, and decreased by changes in perception, such as masking or altering auditory feedback. Using functional(More)
It has been known for at least a hundred years that the speech of a person who stammers becomes more fluent when alterations are made to the speaking environment. Alterations that lead to an improvement in fluency include a) noises that prevent a speaker hearing his or her own voice, and b) manipulations to the sound of a speaker's voice before it is heard.(More)
PURPOSE The contribution of genetic factors in the persistence of and early recovery from stuttering was assessed. METHOD Data from the Twins Early Development Study were employed. Parental reports regarding stuttering were collected at ages 2, 3, 4, and 7 years, and were used to classify speakers into recovered and persistent groups. Of 12,892 children(More)
  • Peter Howell
  • 2004
In this article, a selection of theoretical approaches about stuttering is examined. One way of characterizing theories is in terms of whether the problem of stuttering arises at the linguistic or motor levels or in the interaction between the two. A second contrast between theories is in terms of whether they link production together with perception(More)
The main purpose of the present study was to examine whether the developmental change in loci of disfluency from mainly function words to mainly content words, observed for English speakers who stutter (P. Howell, J. Au-Yeung, & S. Sackin, 1999), also occurs for comparable Spanish speakers who stutter. The participants were divided into 5 age groups. There(More)
A theory is outlined that explains the disruption that occurs when auditory feedback is altered. The key part of the theory is that the number of, and relationship between, inputs to a timekeeper, operative during speech control, affects speech performance. The effects of alteration to auditory feedback depend on the extra input provided to the timekeeper.(More)
PURPOSE The study was designed to see whether young children and adolescents who persist in their stutter (N=18) show differences in trait and/or state anxiety compared with people who recover from their stutter (N=17) and fluent control speakers (N=19). METHOD A fluent control group, a group of speakers who have been documented as stuttering in the past(More)
White matter tracts connecting areas involved in speech and motor control were examined using diffusion-tensor imaging in a sample of people who stutter (n=29) who were heterogeneous with respect to age, sex, handedness and stuttering severity. The goals were to replicate previous findings in developmental stuttering and to extend our knowledge by(More)
The purpose of this article is to indicate how access can be obtained, through Stammering Research, to audio recordings and transcriptions of spontaneous speech data from speakers who stammer. Selections of the first author's data are available in several formats. We describe where to obtain free software for manipulation and analysis of the data in their(More)