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Growing evidence supports a role for the immune system in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. ATP is a key neurotransmitter in this process. Recent studies demonstrate that the glial ATP receptor, P2X7, contributes to the modulation of pathological pain. To further delineate the endogenous mechanisms that are involved in P2X7-related(More)
Three hours after intraplantar carrageenin (6 mg/150 microliters) Fos-like immunoreactivity was predominantly observed in the superficial and deep laminae of the L4-L5 segments of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in the rat. The total number of Fos-like immunoreactive neurons was equally divided between the superficial (laminae I-II) and deep laminae(More)
Vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1) is a ligand-gated nonselective cation channel that is considered to be an important integrator of various pain stimuli such as endogenous lipids, capsaicin, heat, and low pH. In addition to expression in primary afferents, TRPV1 is also expressed in the CNS. To test the hypothesis that the CNS plays a differential role in(More)
1. Intraplantar injection of formalin (5%, 100 microliters in saline) was associated with a high level of spinal c-Fos immunoreactivity and a peripheral paw and ankle edema, as assessed at 3 h after formalin administration. For the two experimental series, the control number of formalin-evoked Fos-like immunoreactive (Fos-LI) neurons were 174 +/- 6 and 193(More)
This study evaluated the effects of systemic indomethacin on carrageenin evoked c-Fos expression in rat lumbar spinal cord neurons. Fos-like immunoreactivity was not observed after the intraplantar injection of the control vehicle saline. 2 h after administration of carrageenin (6 mg/150 microliters) into the hind limb, Fos-like immunoreactive neurons were(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Activation of cannabinoid CB1 and/or CB2 receptors mediates analgesic effects across a broad spectrum of preclinical pain models. Selective activation of CB2 receptors may produce analgesia without the undesirable psychotropic side effects associated with modulation of CB1 receptors. To address selectivity in vivo, we describe(More)
The effect of intravenous 7-nitro-indazole (7NI), a selective inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, on intraplantar formalin evoked spinal expression of c-Fos was studied. The spinal expression of c-Fos in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn was not significantly altered by 7NI. In contrast formalin evoked c-Fos expression in the deep laminae(More)
This study evaluated Fos-like immunoreactivity in lumbar spinal cord neurons following intense cold stimulation and then the modifications induced by opioid administration. Under urethane anaesthesia, the rat's right foot was stimulated by holding it in a regulated temperature bath at 15, 10, 0, -10, -15, -17.5 or -20 degrees C. There was no or little(More)
This study assesses the anti-inflammatory/analgesic effects of ketoprofen a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, using the method of c-Fos immunoreactivity at the spinal cord level in two models of noxious stimulation: carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain or acute noxious heat. Ketoprofen was pre-administered intravenously or orally 25 min before an(More)
BACKGROUND After intraplantar injection of carrageenin, peripheral inflammation and spinal c-Fos expression are extensive, with the latter being sensitive to both large doses of morphine or N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonism. The authors investigated the effects of coadministered morphine and (+)-HA966, a functional antagonist at the glycine site of(More)