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OBJECTIVE Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) exerts potent trophic influence on midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This randomized controlled clinical trial was designed to confirm initial clinical benefits observed in a small, open-label trial using intraputamenal (Ipu) infusion of recombinant human GDNF (liatermin). METHODS Thirty-four PD(More)
We have shown previously that intraparenchymal infusion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) continuously into the posterior putamen in five Parkinson's disease patients is safe and may represent a new treatment option. Here, we report a continuation of this phase I study. After 2 years of continual GDNF infusion, there were no serious(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent neurotrophic factor with restorative effects in a wide variety of rodent and primate models of Parkinson disease, but penetration into brain tissue from either the blood or the cerebro-spinal fluid is limited. Here we delivered GDNF directly into the putamen of five Parkinson patients in a phase(More)
We report on a study in which unannounced visits were made to health clinics in Bangladesh with the intention of discovering what fraction of medical professionals were present at their assigned post. This survey represents the first attempt to quantify the extent of this problem on a nationally representative scale. Nationwide, the average number of(More)
BACKGROUND In developing countries, the private sector provides a substantial proportion of primary health care to low income groups for communicable and non-communicable diseases. These providers are therefore central to improving health outcomes. We need to know how their services compare to those of the public sector to inform policy options. METHODS(More)
Hyperactivity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is seen in animal models of Parkinson's disease, and lesioning of the STN dramatically relieves the animal's parkinsonism. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN is an effective treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. We have studied the effects of a unilateral lesion placed in the STN in(More)
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is now regarded as the optimal surgical target for the treatment of medically refractory idiopathic Parkinson's disease. In our center, a predominantly MRI-directed method has been developed for targeting the STN. The STN is localized on T2-weighted images from a 1.5-T MRI scanner. Long acquisition, high-resolution images are(More)
BACKGROUND Trained birth attendants at delivery are important for preventing both maternal and newborn deaths. West Java is one of the provinces on Java Island, Indonesia, where many women still deliver at home and without the assistance of trained birth attendants. This study aims to explore the perspectives of community members and health workers about(More)
BACKGROUND Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide. West Java is one of the provinces of Java Island in Indonesia with a high proportion of home deliveries, a low attendance of four antenatal services and a low postnatal care uptake. This paper aims(More)