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This is a systematic review of the scientific literature with regard to normal sleep patterns in infants and children (0-12 years). The review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Mean and variability data for sleep duration, number of night wakings, sleep latency, longest(More)
OBJECTIVE The study was designed to ascertain the prevalence and nature of sexual abuse in childhood for a community sample of women. METHOD A two-stage design, using questionnaires and face-to-face interviews, was employed, providing information on prevalence rates, types of abuse, ages of victims, relationship to the abuser, and cohort effects. (More)
BACKGROUND Randomised controlled trials have investigated aspects of postal survey design yet cannot elaborate on reasons behind participants' decision making and survey behaviour. This paper reports participants' perspectives of the design of, and participation in, a longitudinal postal cohort survey. It describes strengths and weaknesses in study design(More)
A New Zealand cohort of 58 patients with bipolar affective disorder was studied prospectively with three-monthly interviews in order to determine the relationship between life events and their relapses. Careful attention was paid to dating life events and the earliest signs of relapse and to assessing the independence of life events from the illness. No(More)
This study investigated the path of emergence of the mental nerve in a number of human population groups. Skeletal material comprised 117 Negro skulls (53 males), 114 caucasoid skulls (62 males) and 100 pre-contact Maori skulls (70 males). In each case, the path of emergence was classified into posterior, anterior, right-angled or multiple. Those cases with(More)
BACKGROUND Breastfeeding is widely advocated to reduce risk of atopy and asthma, but the evidence for such an effect is conflicting. We aimed to assess long-term outcomes of asthma and atopy related to breastfeeding in a New Zealand birth cohort. METHODS Our cohort consisted of 1037 of 1139 children born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between April, 1972, and(More)
BACKGROUND Musculoskeletal physiotherapists routinely assess lumbar segmental motion during the clinical examination of a patient with low back pain. The validity of manual assessment of segmental motion has not, however, been adequately investigated. METHODS In this prospective, multi-centre, pragmatic, diagnostic validity study, 138 consecutive patients(More)
To compare the prevalence of disabling low back pain (DLBP) and disabling wrist/hand pain (DWHP) among groups of workers carrying out similar physical activities in different cultural environments, and to explore explanations for observed differences, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in 18 countries. Standardised questionnaires were used to ascertain(More)
BACKGROUND Feedback and biofeedback (BF) are common adjuncts to pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) for women with stress, urgency, and mixed urinary incontinence (UI). An up to date systematic review of adjunctive feedback or BF was needed to guide practice and further research. OBJECTIVES To determine whether feedback or BF add benefit to PFMT for women(More)
BACKGROUND Lumbar segmental rigidity (LSR) and lumbar segmental instability (LSI) are believed to be associated with low back pain (LBP), and identification of these disorders is believed to be useful for directing intervention choices. Previous studies have focussed on lumbar segmental rotation and translation, but have used widely varying methodologies.(More)