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The observation that a few species in ecological communities are exceptionally abundant, whereas most are rare, prompted the development of species abundance models. Nevertheless, despite the large literature on the commonness and rarity of species inspired by these pioneering studies, some widespread empirical patterns of species abundance resist easy(More)
Temporal variation in species abundances occurs in all ecological communities. Here, we explore the role that this temporal turnover plays in maintaining assemblage diversity. We investigate a three-decade time series of estuarine fishes and show that the abundances of the individual species fluctuate asynchronously around their mean levels. We then use a(More)
Species abundance distributions (SADs) are widely used as a tool for summarizing ecological communities but may have different shapes, depending on the currency used to measure species importance. We develop a simple plotting method that links SADs in the alternative currencies of numerical abundance and biomass and is underpinned by testable predictions(More)
To understand how ecosystems are structured and stabilized, and to identify when communities are at risk of damage or collapse, we need to know how the abundances of the taxa in the entire assemblage vary over ecologically meaningful timescales. Here, we present an analysis of species temporal variability within a single large vertebrate community. Using an(More)
Some of the most marked temporal fluctuations in species abundances are linked to seasons. In theory, multispecies assemblages can persist if species use shared resources at different times, thereby minimizing interspecific competition. However, there is scant empirical evidence supporting these predictions and, to the best of our knowledge, seasonal(More)
How do species divide resources to produce the characteristic species abundance distributions seen in nature? One way to resolve this problem is to examine how the biomass (or capacity) of the spatial guilds that combine to produce an abundance distribution is allocated among species. Here we argue that selection on body size varies across guilds occupying(More)
Motion detection in video is important for a number of applications and fields. In video surveillance , motion detection is an essential accompaniment to activity recognition for early warning systems. Robotics also has much to gain from motion detection and segmentation, particularly in high speed motion tracking for tactile systems. There are a myriad of(More)
Embedded systems permeate through nearly all aspects of modern society. From cars to refrigerators to nuclear refineries , securing these systems has never been more important. Intrusions, such as the Stuxnet malware which broke the centrifuges in Iran's Natanz refinery, can be catastrophic to not only the infected systems, but even to the wellbeing of the(More)
During the past decade, several areas of speech and language understanding have witnessed substantial breakthroughs from the use of data-driven models. In the area of dialogue systems, the trend is less obvious, and most practical systems are still built through significant engineering and expert knowledge. Nevertheless, several recent results suggest that(More)