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The ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis), long suspected to be extinct, has been rediscovered in the Big Woods region of eastern Arkansas. Visual encounters during 2004 and 2005, and analysis of a video clip from April 2004, confirm the existence of at least one male. Acoustic signatures consistent with Campephilus display drums also have been(More)
Individual identification of the relatively cryptic forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) at forest clearings currently provides the highest quality monitoring data on this ecologically important but increasingly threatened species. Here we present baseline data from the first 20 years of an individually based study of this species, conducted at the Dzanga(More)
Most evaluations of the effects of human activities on wild animals have focused on estimating changes in abundance and distribution of threatened species; however, ecosystem disturbances also affect aspects of animal behavior such as short-term movement, activity budgets, and reproduction. It may take a long time for changes in behavior to manifest as(More)
In the tropical forests of Central and South America, army ants of the Eci-tonini tribe, and the numerous animals that follow them through the understory, share a complex relationship that has far-reaching effects on population dynamics and community structure. Although considerable study has been made of various participants in this relationship , no(More)
Foraging theory predicts that dietary niche breadth should expand as resource availability decreases. However, Galápagos marine iguanas often die during algae shortages (El Niños) although land plants abound where they rest and reproduce. On Seymour Norte island, a subpopulation of iguanas exhibited unique foraging behavior: they consistently included the(More)
The California Gull (Larus californicus) breeding colony at Mono Lake, California, is the second largest in the world, but its size can fluctuate annually by .45%. We examined six groups of factors that potentially could affect the numbers of pairs nesting each year, including availability of nesting habitat, numbers of potential breeding gulls,(More)
African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) occupy large ranges in dense tropical forests and often use far-reaching vocal signals to coordinate social behavior. Elephant populations in Central Africa are in crisis, having declined by more than 60% in the last decade. Methods currently used to monitor these populations are expensive and time-intensive,(More)
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