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1. Suppression of voluntary muscle activity of hand and arm muscles in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex has been investigated in man. 2. Suppression could be elicited by low levels of TMS without any prior excitatory response. The latency of the suppression was 3-8 ms longer than the excitation observed at a higher(More)
The cumulative sum procedure introduced by Hurst (1950) involves subtraction of a control reference level from a series of datum points and adding the differences consecutively. The resultant curve shows trends indicating changed levels of points. The technique has been applied to peristimulus time histograms in order to reveal small changes in the(More)
The size of compound motor evoked potentials (cMEPs) to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex was measured in the relaxed first dorsal interosseous muscle of the nondominant hand (ndFDI) during different levels of voluntary contraction in the homonymous muscle of the dominant hand (dFDI). cMEP responses in the ndFDI became larger when the(More)
The effect of long-term endurance and resistance training on central fatigue has been studied using transcranial magnetic stimulation by exercising the biceps brachii to exhaustion and recording motor-evoked potentials from the non-exercised homologous biceps. Three groups of eight healthy individuals took part: two groups of individuals who had more than 8(More)
Simultaneous recordings were made from gamma (gamma) motor axons and from muscle spindle afferents of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle during locomotion in decerebrate cats. The gamma-neurons were identified as static or dynamic (gammas or gammad) by correlating their behaviour during midbrain stimulation with changes in muscle spindle afferent(More)
The International Campaign for Cures of Spinal Cord Injury Paralysis established a panel tasked with reviewing the methodology for clinical trials for spinal cord injury (SCI), and making recommendations on the conduct of future trials. This is the fourth of four papers. Here, we examine the phases of a clinical trial program, the elements, types, and(More)
We have investigated variability in the amplitude of compound motor evoked potentials (cMEPs) in right and left thenar and wrist extensor muscles in response to synchronous bilateral transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortices using two figure-of-eight stimulating coils. Trials of 50 stimuli revealed a wide range of variability in cMEP(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effectiveness of physiological outcome measures in detecting functional change in the degree of impairment of spinal cord injury (SCI) following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the sensorimotor cortex. METHODS Subjects with complete or incomplete cervical (or T1) SCI received real and sham rTMS in a(More)
OBJECTIVES (1) A biochemical investigation of the motor cortex in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury and normal control subjects using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). (2) To relate any altered biochemistry with the physiological changes in corticospinal function seen after spinal cord injury. METHODS A group of six patients with(More)
Cross-correlation analysis of the naturally occurring discharges of gamma-motoneurones to gastrocnemius and soleus muscles has revealed a tendency towards synchronized firing in the decerebrated, spinal cat. The primary feature of the cross-correlation between two gamma-motoneurones is a symmetrical peak centred at time zero with reference to discharges at(More)