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The many complex phenotypes of cancer have all been attributed to "somatic mutation." These phenotypes include anaplasia, autonomous growth, metastasis, abnormal cell morphology, DNA indices ranging from 0.5 to over 2, clonal origin but unstable and non-clonal karyotypes and phenotypes, abnormal centrosome numbers, immortality in vitro and in(More)
The mutation rates of cancer cells to drug and multidrug resistance are paradoxically high, i.e., 10(-3) to 10(-6), compared with those altering phenotypes of recessive genes in normal diploid cells of about 10(-12). Here the hypothesis was investigated that these mutations are due to chromosome reassortments that are catalyzed by aneuploidy. Aneuploidy, an(More)
Genetic and phenotypic instability are hallmarks of cancer cells, but their cause is not clear. The leading hypothesis suggests that a poorly defined gene mutation generates genetic instability and that some of many subsequent mutations then cause cancer. Here we investigate the hypothesis that genetic instability of cancer cells is caused by aneuploidy, an(More)
A century ago, Boveri proposed that cancer is caused by aneuploidy, an abnormal balance of chromosomes, because aneuploidy correlates with cancer and because experimental aneuploidy generates "pathological" phenotypes. Half a century later, when cancers were found to be nonclonal for aneuploidy, but clonal for somatic gene mutations, this hypothesis was(More)
Cancer cells and aneuploid cell lines can acquire resistance against multiple unrelated chemotherapeutic drugs that are over 3,000-fold those of normal levels and display spontaneous resistances up to 20-fold of normal levels. Two different mechanisms were proposed for this phenotype: (i) classical mutation of drug metabolizing genes or (ii) chromosome(More)
The complexity and diversity of cancer-specific phenotypes, including de-differentiation, invasiveness, metastasis, abnormal morphology and metabolism, genetic instability and progression to malignancy, have so far eluded explanation by a simple, coherent hypothesis. However, an adaptation of Metabolic Control Analysis supports the 100-year-old hypothesis(More)
The hypothesis that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a new, sexually transmitted virus that causes AIDS has been entirely unproductive in terms of public health benefits. Moreover, it fails to predict the epidemiology of AIDS, the annual AIDS risk and the very heterogeneous AIDS diseases of infected persons. The correct hypothesis must explain why: (1)(More)
The gene-mutation-cancer hypothesis holds that mutated cellular protooncogenes, such as point-mutated proto-ras, "play a dominant part in cancer," because they are sufficient to transform transfected mouse cell lines in vitro [Alberts, B., Bray, D., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K. & Watson, J. D. (1994) Molecular Biology of the Cell (Garland, New York)].(More)
Since cancers have individual clonal karyotypes, are immortal and evolve from normal cells treated by carcinogens only after exceedingly long latencies of many months to decades-we deduce that carcinogenesis may be a form of speciation. This theory proposes that carcinogens initiate carcinogenesis by causing aneuploidy, i.e., losses or gains of chromosomes.(More)
For nearly a century, cancer has been blamed on somatic mutation. But it is still unclear whether this mutation is aneuploidy, an abnormal balance of chromosomes, or gene mutation. Despite enormous efforts, the currently popular gene mutation hypothesis has failed to identify cancer-specific mutations with transforming function and cannot explain why cancer(More)