Peter H. Clingen

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The mechanisms by which DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are repaired in mammalian cells are unclear. Studies in bacteria and yeasts indicate that both nucleotide excision repair (NER) and recombination are required for their removal and that double-strand breaks are produced as repair intermediates in yeast cells. The role of NER and recombination in the(More)
SJG-136 (NSC 694501) is a rationally designed pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimer that binds in the minor groove of DNA. It spans 6 bp with a preference for binding to purine-GATC-pyrimidine sequences. The agent has potent activity in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) anticancer drug screen with 50% net growth inhibition conferred by 0.14 to 320 nmol/L (7.4(More)
The aims of this study were to investigate mechanisms of action involved in H2AX phosphorylation by DNA interstrand crosslinking (ICL) agents and determine whether gammaH2AX could be a suitable pharmacological marker for identifying potential ICL cellular chemosensitivity. In normal human fibroblasts, after treatment with nitrogen mustard (HN2) or(More)
SJG-136, a pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) dimer, is a highly efficient interstrand crosslinking agent that reacts with guanine bases in a 5'-GATC-3' sequence in the DNA minor groove. SJG-136 crosslinks form rapidly and persist compared to those produced by conventional crosslinking agents such as nitrogen mustard, melphalan or cisplatin which bind(More)
The anticancer drug cisplatin reacts with DNA leading to the formation of interstrand and intrastrand cross-links that are the critical cytotoxic lesions. In contrast to cells bearing mutations in other components of the nucleotide excision repair apparatus (XPB, XPD, XPG and CSB), cells defective for the ERCC1-XPF structure-specific nuclease are highly(More)
The DNA repair-deficient genetic disorders xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and trichothiodystrophy (TTD) can both result from mutations in the XPD gene, the sites of the mutations differing between the two disorders. The hallmarks of XP are multiple pigmentation changes in the skin and a greatly elevated frequency of skin cancers, characteristics that are not(More)
Immunocytochemistry was used for the direct measurement of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, (6-4) photoproducts, and Dewar isomers in normal human mononuclear cells following irradiation by natural sunlight or by a FS20 broad spectrum UVB sunlamp. The induction of each type of photoproduct was detected following 30-60 min sunlight exposure or with FS20(More)
We have compared the induction of apoptosis and cytokine release by UVB and gamma-radiation in primary (untransformed) and in two immortalized human epithelial/keratinocyte cell lines, HaCaT and KB (KB is now known to be a subline of the ubiquitous keratin-forming tumour cell line HeLa and we therefore designate it HeLa-KB). In both the primary and the(More)
The sunburn reaction is the most common consequence of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and is mediated at least in part by interleukin-6 (IL-6). The aim of this study was to determine if DNA is a major chromophore involved in the induction of IL-6 following UV irradiation of a human epidermoid carcinoma cell line (KB), and of normal human(More)
We have assessed the ability of xeroderma pigmentosum and normal keratinocytes grown out from skin biopsies to undergo apoptosis after irradiation with ultraviolet B. Keratinocytes have been studied from xeroderma pigmentosum complementation groups A (three biopsies), C (three biopsies), D (one biopsy), xeroderma pigmentosum variant (two biopsies), and(More)