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1 OBJECTIVE — To estimate the global number of excess deaths due to diabetes in the year 2000. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS — We used a computerized generic formal disease model (DisMod II), used by the World Health Organization to assess disease burden through modeling the relationships between incidence, prevalence, and disease-specific mortality. Baseline(More)
BACKGROUND Intensive lifestyle interventions can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose tolerance, but how long these benefits extend beyond the period of active intervention, and whether such interventions reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, is unclear. We aimed to assess whether intensive(More)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common chronic disease that is thought to have a substantial genetic basis. Identification of the genes responsible has been hampered by the complex nature of the syndrome. Abnormalities in insulin secretion and insulin action predict the development of type 2 diabetes and are, themselves, highly heritable traits. Since fewer(More)
BACKGROUND The relative roles of obesity, insulin resistance, insulin secretory dysfunction, and excess hepatic glucose production in the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are controversial. We conducted a prospective study to determine which of these factors predicted the development of the disease in a group of Pima Indians.(More)
The metabolic characteristics of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and diminished insulin secretion are costly to measure directly. To evaluate the utility of several simple indices derived from insulin and glucose measurements, the indices were examined from 1982 to 1997 with respect to correlation with more sophisticated measures of insulin sensitivity(More)
OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes and obesity have genetic and environmental determinants. We studied the effects of different environments on these diseases in Pima Indians in Mexico and the U.S. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adult Pima-Indian and non-Pima populations in the Sierra Madre mountains of Mexico were examined using oral glucose tolerance tests and(More)
BACKGROUND Early exposure to cow's milk has been implicated in the occurrence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus but there is little information about infant-feeding practices and subsequent non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). We examined the association between breastfeeding and NIDDM in a population with a high prevalence of this(More)
Changes in serum insulin concentrations during deterioration of glucose tolerance were studied in 81 Pima Indians who worsened from normal to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 44 who changed from IGT to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM); 27 who were seen at diagnosis of NIDDM and 1.4-8.5 years later; and 11 subjects who were seen at each of(More)
The incidence of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) was determined in a population of Pima Indians from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona. Between 1975 and 1984, 394 deaths occurred among 4,828 subjects aged 5 years or older, and 199 of these occurred in the 1,093 persons with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Only 28 deaths were attributed to CHD;(More)