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The metabolic characteristics of type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and diminished insulin secretion are costly to measure directly. To evaluate the utility of several simple indices derived from insulin and glucose measurements, the indices were examined from 1982 to 1997 with respect to correlation with more sophisticated measures of insulin sensitivity(More)
BACKGROUND Early exposure to cow's milk has been implicated in the occurrence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus but there is little information about infant-feeding practices and subsequent non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). We examined the association between breastfeeding and NIDDM in a population with a high prevalence of this(More)
Changes in serum insulin concentrations during deterioration of glucose tolerance were studied in 81 Pima Indians who worsened from normal to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 44 who changed from IGT to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM); 27 who were seen at diagnosis of NIDDM and 1.4-8.5 years later; and 11 subjects who were seen at each of(More)
Angiotensin receptor blockers are renoprotective in hypertensive azotemic patients with type 2 diabetes, but their efficacy in early diabetic kidney disease is uncertain. We performed a 6-year randomized clinical trial in 169 American Indians with type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio [ACR] <30 mg/g; n = 91) or microalbuminuria (ACR(More)
Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32(More)
OBJECTIVES The overall objective of this study was to evaluate and provide evidence and recommendations on current published literature about diet and lifestyle in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN Epidemiological and experimental studies, focusing on nutritional intervention in the prevention of type 2 diabetes are used to make disease-specific(More)
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is characterised by the loss of pigmented neurones in the substantia nigra, leading to reduced tyrosine hydroxylase activity and depletion of dopamine. Treatments attempt to correct this deficit by the use of levodopa and inhibitors of dopamine metabolising enzymes such as catechol-O-methytransferase (COMT). A common(More)
OBJECTIVE We examined the effect of intrauterine diabetes exposure (IDE) on the incidence of diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Individuals were followed from their first diabetic examination until December 2006, death, ESRD, or age of 45 years. RESULTS Among the 1,850 diabetic(More)
Most genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in Europeans. The current study reports a GWAS for young-onset T2DM in American Indians. Participants were selected from a longitudinal study conducted in Pima Indians and included 278 cases with diabetes with onset(More)