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An estimated 4000 km2 of agricultural land in England and Wales has been contaminated in varying degrees by past mining and smelting activities. Contaminants include one or more of the metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and As. Studies conducted in southwest and central England conclude that only a small proportion of these metals are taken up into the leaf material of(More)
Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation or specialty. Until recently, dissection and didactic lectures were its sole pedagogy. Teaching methodology has been revolutionized with more reliance on models, imaging, simulation, and the Internet to further consolidate and enhance the learning experience. Moreover,(More)
The safe and successful performance of a cricothyroidotomy demands a working and yet specific knowledge of anatomy. An ignorance or misunderstanding of anatomy may result in failure or complications. The Educational Affairs Committee of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists has highlighted the importance of clinical anatomy for several invasive(More)
We have studied the fasciae of the abdominal subcutaneous layer by analyzing axial CT images taken at a level immediately superior to the iliac crests in 20 adult female patients. The pattern of the fascial planes seen at this level was compared with those seen on MRI and dissected cadaveric sections. We have demonstrated a circumferential subcutaneous(More)
The safe and successful performance of pericardiocentesis demands a working and specific knowledge of anatomy. Misunderstanding of anatomy may result in failure or serious complications. This review attempts to aid understanding of the anatomical framework, pitfalls, and complications of pericardiocentesis. Pericardiocentesis is carried out for aspiration(More)
In bilateral dissections of 68 cadavers, four examples were found unilaterally of variant slips of iliacus and psoas major muscles. In three of them the femoral nerve was pierced by the variant slip. One of these variants was a previously undocumented accessory slip of iliacus, originating from the iliolumbar ligament, passing inferiorly anterior to(More)
The safe and successful performance of a lumbar puncture demands a working and specific knowledge of anatomy. Misunderstanding of anatomy may result in failure or complications. This review attempts to aid understanding of the anatomical framework, pitfalls, and complications of lumbar puncture. It includes special reference to 3D relationships, functional(More)
Anatomy has traditionally been a cornerstone of medical education, which has been taught via dissection and didactic lectures. The rising prevalence of mobile tablet technology means medical software applications ("apps") play an increasingly important role in medical education. The applications highlighted in this article will aid anatomical educators to(More)