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An estimated 4000 km2 of agricultural land in England and Wales has been contaminated in varying degrees by past mining and smelting activities. Contaminants include one or more of the metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and As. Studies conducted in southwest and central England conclude that only a small proportion of these metals are taken up into the leaf material of(More)
This anatomic study describes the course and intracranial relations of the hypoglossal n. in 32 cadavers. The rootlets of the nerve emerged as a fan-shaped distribution (23.44%) or in two bundles (76.56%) and converged towards the hypoglossal canal in the subarachnoid space before piercing the dura mater. In 76.57% of cases the rootlets pierced the dura(More)
In bilateral dissections of 68 cadavers, four examples were found unilaterally of variant slips of iliacus and psoas major muscles. In three of them the femoral nerve was pierced by the variant slip. One of these variants was a previously undocumented accessory slip of iliacus, originating from the iliolumbar ligament, passing inferiorly anterior to(More)
Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation or specialty. Until recently, dissection and didactic lectures were its sole pedagogy. Teaching methodology has been revolutionized with more reliance on models, imaging, simulation, and the Internet to further consolidate and enhance the learning experience. Moreover,(More)
The safe and successful performance of a lumbar puncture demands a working and specific knowledge of anatomy. Misunderstanding of anatomy may result in failure or complications. This review attempts to aid understanding of the anatomical framework, pitfalls, and complications of lumbar puncture. It includes special reference to 3D relationships, functional(More)
It would be valuable to use cadaveric models of cervical vertebrae and spinal cord to assess how varying degrees of traumatic subluxation would relate to neurological damage. However, before such a study may be undertaken, it would be important to assess the degree of shrinkage or expansion of the spinal cord that occurs during the embalming process. This(More)
Using the freeze-fracture technique, myelinated fibres were examined from the rabbit sciatic nerve at 48 h after a proximal nerve crush. Employing computer-aided morphometric techniques the distribution of Schwann cell plasma membrane pores was analysed. In both normal control and crushed nerves membrane pores were restricted to the cytoplasmic(More)