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Smoking cessation treatment is now integrated into many health-care systems and a major research effort is under way to improve current success rates. Until now results from randomized clinical trials have been reported in many different ways, leading to problems of interpretation. We propose six standard criteria comprising the 'Russell Standard' (RS).(More)
CONTEXT The majority of cigarette smokers who achieve abstinence relapse within the first year and require many attempts before achieving permanent abstinence. Evidence to support pharmacological treatment for relapse prevention is insufficient. OBJECTIVE To determine whether smokers who quit after 12 weeks of treatment with varenicline, a selective(More)
The mood and physical symptoms scale (MPSS) was developed in the early 1980s to assess cigarette withdrawal symptoms, and variants of it have been used for 20 years. To date, no paper has been published on the properties of the scale. To evaluate psychometric properties of MPSS and the interrelationship between the key tobacco withdrawal symptoms. The core(More)
Studies with nicotine chewing gum and nicotine skin patches indicate that nicotine replacement can help people to give up smoking. The rapidity with which nicotine is absorbed when given as a nasal spray suggests that it might be effective for those for whom the other means of replacement are too slow. The efficacy and safety of a nasal nicotine spray as an(More)
BACKGROUND Since nicotine gum was introduced in the 1980s, nicotine replacement therapy has become the most widely used pharmacological smoking cessation treatment. Some smokers prefer acute oral forms, but many smokers reject chewing gum. We tested the safety and efficacy of a new nicotine polacrilex lozenge for smoking cessation. METHODS Double-blind,(More)
Rationale: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in varying forms is becoming widely used. Clinicians, therapists and regulatory authorities are interested in the abuse liability and dependence potential of the different forms. Objectives: To compare the abuse liability and dependence potential of nicotine gum, transdermal patch, spray and inhaler. Methods:(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of a brief smoking cessation intervention with pregnant women practicable routinely by midwives. DESIGN Midwives were randomized to deliver the experimental intervention or usual care. The 10-15-minute intervention was based on brief counselling, written materials, arrangements for continuing self-help support and(More)
BACKGROUND Most people who stop smoking gain weight, on average about 7 kg in the long term. There are some interventions that have been specifically designed to tackle smoking cessation whilst also limiting weight gain. Many smoking cessation pharmacotherapies and other interventions may also limit weight gain. OBJECTIVES This review is divided into two(More)
BACKGROUND Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are electronic devices that heat a liquid - usually comprising propylene glycol and glycerol, with or without nicotine and flavours, stored in disposable or refillable cartridges or a reservoir - into an aerosol for inhalation. Since ECs appeared on the market in 2006 there has been a steady growth in sales. Smokers(More)
Trees face the dilemma that achieving high plant productivity is accompanied by a risk of drought-induced hydraulic failure due to a trade-off in the trees' vascular system between hydraulic efficiency and safety. By investigating the xylem anatomy of branches and coarse roots, and measuring branch axial hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to(More)