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1. Double-barrelled ion-sensitive micro-electrodes were used to measure changes in the intracellular activities of K+, Na+ and Cl- (aiK, aiNa, aiCl) in glial cells of slices from guinea-pig olfactory cortex during repetitive stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract. 2. Base-line levels of aiK, aiNa and aiCl were about 66, 25 and 6 mM, respectively, for(More)
1. The nature, distribution and function of rectifying channels in rat spinal root myelinated axons has been assessed with selective blocking agents and a variety of intracellular and extracellular recording techniques. 2. The electrotonic responses of roots poisoned with tetrodotoxin (TTX) to constant current pulses had fast (rise time much less than 1 ms)(More)
Carbachol and gamma-aminobutyric acid depolarize mammalian sympathetic neurons and increase the free extracellular K+-concentration. We have used double-barrelled ion-sensitive microelectrodes to determine changes of the membrane potential and of the free intracellular Na+-, K+- and Cl- -concentrations ( [Na+]i, [K+]i and [Cl-]i) during neurotransmitter(More)
To study the mechanism of periodic paralysis, we investigated the properties of intact muscle fibers biopsied from a patient who had adynamia episodica hereditaria with electromyographic signs of myotonia. When the potassium concentration in the extracellular medium, [K]e, was 3.5 mmol/l, force of contraction, membrane resting potential, and intracellular(More)
Myelinated nerve fibres with a reduced safety factor for conduction due to demyelination are easily blocked by trains of impulses. To find out why, in vivo recordings from rat ventral root fibres demyelinated with diphtheria toxin have been supplemented with in vivo and in vitro recordings from normal fibres. Despite a small rise in extracellular potassium(More)
Enhancement of membrane K(+) conductance may reduce the abnormal excitability of primary afferent nociceptive neurons in neuropathic pain. It has been shown that retigabine, a novel anticonvulsant, activates Kv7 (KCNQ/M) channels in the axonal/nodal membrane of peripheral myelinated axons. In this study, we have tested the effects of retigabine on(More)
The effects of bath-applied 4-aminopyridine on neurones and extracellular potassium and calcium concentrations were recorded in slices of guinea-pig olfactory cortex. Neurones were orthodromically activated by stimulating the lateral olfactory tract. 4-Aminopyridine (3-10 microM) had the following effects: (1) an increase in the frequency and amplitude of(More)
Double-barrelled pH-sensitive micro-electrodes were used to measure changes of intracellular and extracellular pH in and around motoneurons of the isolated frog spinal cord during application of excitatory amino acids. It was found that N-methyl-D-aspartate, quisqualate and kainate produced a concentration-dependent intracellular acidification.(More)
Recording of action potentials from single unmyelinated nerve fibers by microneurography is an important tool to investigate peripheral neural functions in human neuropathies. However, the interpretation of microneurography recordings can be difficult because axonal membrane potential is not revealed by this method. We tested the hypothesis that the(More)