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Previous screen readers provide blind WWW-users only with the textual contents of the web pages, but exclude the access to important information coded in the layout of web pages. The approach we introduce here shall overcome the layout barrier of webpages with the help of three-dimensionally auditory objects ("hearcons") which are positioned in an auditory(More)
Binaural sound perception allows humans to localize sound sources in space. Modern spatialization soundcards already offer the possibility to place virtual sounds in a virtual auditory environment. We use this to augment the acoustical environments of blind users with virtual auditory interaction objects (" hearcons ") representing the interaction objects(More)
This article reports on a Special Interest Group meeting held at CHI '94, Boston, to discuss the past, present, and future of "Tools for Working with Guidelines". Though working with guidelines has gained today more common practice than in the past, it is still not always obvious which methods can be effectively used for managing guidelines during the whole(More)
EXPOSE (Expert System for Phase-Oriented Software Ergonomic counseling) is a decision support system consisting of five integrated parts (Fig. 1) to provide user interface designers with • empirical knowledge about common practice in a specific application domain; • knowledge-based information about decision alternatives , depending on the attributes of a(More)
The teeth of sea urchins are built of magnesiumrich calcite. Sea urchin teeth are considerably stronger than compact calcite. They have no homogeneous crystal lattice with preferred cleavage plain but consist of the primary tooth skeleton (the tooth elements) and of the secondary tooth skeleton (calcareous discs), i. e. they are built up as composite(More)