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In this paper we assess how coordination among base stations can be exploited to improve downlink capacity in fourth generation (4G) cellular networks. We focus on heterogeneous networks where low-power pico cells are deployed within the coverage area of an existing macro network with the aim of offloading traffic from the (potentially congested) macro(More)
Informal payments are known to be widespread in the post-communist health care systems of Central and Eastern Europe. However, their role and nature remains contentious with the debate characterized by much polemic. This paper aims to make sense of this debate by reviewing and summarizing the main arguments of the theoretical debate in Hungary. The review(More)
Informal payments are known to be widespread in the post-communist health care systems of Central and Eastern Europe. However, their role and nature remains contentious, with the debate characterized by much polemic. This paper steps back from this debate to examine the theoretical basis for understanding the persistence of informal payments. The authors(More)
THE physician occasionally encounters a situation in clinical practice that offers unique opportunities to study physiologic principles relating to cardiac function that cannot be evaluated under ordinary circumstances. We recently studied a patient who had developed complete heart block without evidence of other cardiac or systemic disease. With heart rate(More)
Hungary has achieved a successful transition from an overly centralized, integrated Semashko-style health care system to a purchaser provider split model with output-based payment methods. Although there have been substantial increases in life expectancy in recent years among both men and women, many health outcomes remain poor, placing Hungary among the(More)
While there is a growing body of evidence that informal payments for health care are widespread and enduring in the former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia, evidence on the scale of the phenomenon is not only limited, but what is available is often conflicting. Hungary exemplifies this controversy, as the available(More)
  • Peter Gaal
  • 2005
This contribution considers entitlements and benefits in the Hungarian health care system. After a brief introduction to the organizational structure of the system the decision-making processes are discussed in detail, including the most important actors, types and pieces of legislation, formal structures, decision-making criteria, and outputs in terms of(More)