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Informal payments are known to be widespread in the post-communist health care systems of Central and Eastern Europe. However, their role and nature remains contentious with the debate characterized by much polemic. This paper aims to make sense of this debate by reviewing and summarizing the main arguments of the theoretical debate in Hungary. The review(More)
There is increasing interest in the issue of informal payments for health care in low- and middle-income countries. Emerging evidence suggests that the phenomenon is both diverse, including many variants from cash payments to in-kind contributions and from gift giving to informal charging, and widespread, reported from countries in at least three(More)
While there is a growing body of evidence that informal payments for health care are widespread and enduring in the former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia, evidence on the scale of the phenomenon is not only limited, but what is available is often conflicting. Hungary exemplifies this controversy, as the available(More)
Informal payments are known to be widespread in the post-communist health care systems of Central and Eastern Europe. However, their role and nature remains contentious, with the debate characterized by much polemic. This paper steps back from this debate to examine the theoretical basis for understanding the persistence of informal payments. The authors(More)
In this paper we assess how coordination among base stations can be exploited to improve downlink capacity in fourth generation (4G) cellular networks. We focus on heterogeneous networks where low-power pico cells are deployed within the coverage area of an existing macro network with the aim of offloading traffic from the (potentially congested) macro(More)
Hungary has achieved a successful transition from an overly centralized, integrated Semashko-style health care system to a purchaser provider split model with output-based payment methods. Although there have been substantial increases in life expectancy in recent years among both men and women, many health outcomes remain poor, placing Hungary among the(More)
cannot be evaluated under ordinary circumstances. We recently studied a patient who had developed complete heart block without evidence of other cardiac or systemic disease. With heart rate controlled by an external pacemaker, the effects of rate, position, and exercise on cardiac output, systemic pressure, and stroke volume were assessed. Benchimol et al.1(More)