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The C1 neurons reside in the rostral and intermediate portions of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, IVLM). They use glutamate as a fast transmitter and synthesize catecholamines plus various neuropeptides. These neurons regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis via direct projections to the paraventricular nucleus and regulate the autonomic nervous system via(More)
KEY POINTS This study explores the state dependence of the hypercapnic ventilatory reflex (HCVR). We simulated an instantaneous increase or decrease of central chemoreceptor activity by activating or inhibiting the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) by optogenetics in conscious rats. During quiet wake or non-REM sleep, hypercapnia increased both breathing(More)
RATIONALE The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) contains central respiratory chemoreceptors (retrotrapezoid nucleus, RTN) and the sympathoexcitatory, hypoxia-responsive C1 neurons. Simultaneous optogenetic stimulation of these neurons produces vigorous cardiorespiratory stimulation, sighing, and arousal from non-REM sleep. OBJECTIVES To identify the(More)
The expression of c-Fos defines brain regions activated by the stressors hypotension and glucoprivation however, whether this identifies all brain sites involved is unknown. Furthermore, the neurochemicals that delineate these regions, or are utilized in them when responding to these stressors remain undefined. Conscious rats were subjected to hypotension,(More)
To determine the organization of presympathetic vasomotor drive by phenotypic populations of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) neurons, we examined the somatosympathetic reflex (SSR) evoked in four sympathetic nerves together with selective lesions of RVLM presympathetic neurons. Urethane-anesthetized (1.3 g/kg ip), paralyzed, vagotomized and(More)
1. Cardiovascular sympathetic nerve activity at rest is grouped into waves, or bursts, that are generally, although not exclusively, related to the heart rate and to respiration. In addition, activity is also generated in response to central commands and to environmental stimuli. 2. Responsibility for the integration of all these different elements of(More)
In conscious mammals, hypoxia or hypercapnia stimulates breathing while theoretically exerting opposite effects on central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs). We tested this theory by examining how hypoxia and hypercapnia change the activity of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a putative CRC and chemoreflex integrator. Archaerhodopsin-(Arch)-transduced RTN(More)
Somatostatin (SST) neurons in the ventral respiratory column (VRC) are essential for the generation of normal breathing. Little is known about the neuromodulatory role of SST on ventral respiratory neurons other than that local administration induces apnoea. Here, we describe the cardiorespiratory effects of microinjecting SST into the preBötzinger and(More)
Combined optogenetic activation of the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN; a CO2/proton-activated brainstem nucleus) with nearby catecholaminergic neurons (C1 and A5), or selective C1 neuron stimulation, increases blood pressure (BP) and breathing, causes arousal from non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, and triggers sighs. Here we wished to determine which of(More)
Bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are critical for the maintenance of sympathetic vasomotor tone and normal cardiovascular reflex function. So far, selectively eliminating/inhibiting distinct subpopulations of RVLM neurons has not significantly altered arterial pressure. Here we show that RVLM presympathetic neurons that(More)