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BACKGROUND Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with(More)
BACKGROUND Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional(More)
BACKGROUND Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and accurate estimates of the prevalence of this disease are needed to anticipate the future burden of COPD, target key risk factors, and plan for providing COPD-related health services. We aimed to measure the prevalence of COPD and its risk(More)
BACKGROUND Measurement of the global burden of disease with disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) requires disability weights that quantify health losses for all non-fatal consequences of disease and injury. There has been extensive debate about a range of conceptual and methodological issues concerning the definition and measurement of these weights. Our(More)
BACKGROUND The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update(More)
BACKGROUND The UK has had universal free health care and public health programmes for more than six decades. Several policy initiatives and structural reforms of the health system have been undertaken. Health expenditure has increased substantially since 1990, albeit from relatively low levels compared with other countries. We used data from the Global(More)
BACKGROUND A close relation between asthma and allergic rhinitis has been reported by several epidemiological and clinical studies. However, the nature of this relation remains unclear. We used the follow-up data from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey to investigate the onset of asthma in patients with allergic and non-allergic rhinitis(More)
BACKGROUND Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in ventilatory lung function in the international European(More)
The study consisted of a survey of all new cases of Bell's palsy occurring between 1992 and 1996 in practices contributing data to the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Data were extracted on age, sex, date of episode of Bell's palsy, household number, episodes of herpes simplex, treatment prescribed and referral to relevant hospital(More)