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This paper reviews the current literature on "empathy for pain", the ability to understand pain observed in another person, in the context of a newly documented form of pain empathy "synaesthesia for pain". In synaesthesia for pain a person not only empathises with another's pain but experiences the observed or imagined pain as if it was their own. Neural(More)
BACKGROUND The neurobiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not particularly well understood, and biomedical treatment approaches are therefore extremely limited. A prominent explanatory model suggests that social-relating symptoms may arise from dysfunction within the mirror neuron system, while a recent neuroimaging study suggests that these(More)
Synaesthesia for pain is a phenomenon where a person experiences pain when observing or imagining another in pain. Anecdotal reports of this type of experience have most commonly occurred in individuals who have lost a limb. Distinct from phantom pain, synaesthesia for pain is triggered specifically in response to pain in another. Here, we provide the first(More)
Gait abnormalities have been widely reported in individuals with autism and Asperger's disorder. There is controversy as to whether the cerebellum or the basal-ganglia frontostriatal regions underpin these abnormalities. This is the first direct comparison of gait and upper-body postural features in autism and Asperger's disorder. Clinical and control(More)
Recent research suggests the observation or imagination of somatosensory stimulation in another (e.g., touch or pain) can induce a similar somatosensory experience in oneself. Some researchers have presented this experience as a type of synaesthesia, whereas others consider it an extreme experience of an otherwise normal perception. Here, we present an(More)
Mirror neurons are thought to facilitate emotion processing, but it is unclear whether the valence of an emotional presentation (positive or negative) can influence subsequent mirror neuron activity. Participants completed a transcranial magnetic stimulation experiment that involved stimulation of the primary motor cortex, and electromyography recording(More)
BACKGROUND Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been found to improve working memory (WM) performance in both healthy and clinical participants. However, whether this effect can be enhanced by cognitive activity undertaken during tDCS has not yet been explored. OBJECTIVE This study(More)
We investigated gait in newly diagnosed children with autism. From our previous study with 6- to 14-year-olds, we hypothesized that motor symptoms indicative of basal ganglia and cerebellar dysfunction would appear across the developmental trajectory of autism. Two groups were recruited: children with autism (eight males, three females; mean age 5 y 10 mo(More)
In the stop task, response time to the go signal is increased when the immediately preceding trial involves the presentation of a stop signal. A recent explanation suggests that these "after-effects" are due to mechanisms that occur prior to the completion of response selection processes, but it is possible that they instead may reflect a slowed motor(More)
Interpersonal motor resonance (IMR) is presumed to result from activity within the human mirror neuron system, which itself is thought to comprise the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Twenty healthy adults underwent anodal, cathodal, and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to either IPL or IFG immediately(More)