Peter G Barlow

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The human cathelicidin LL-37 is a cationic host defense peptide (antimicrobial peptide) expressed primarily by neutrophils and epithelial cells. This peptide, up-regulated under conditions of inflammation, has immunomodulatory and antimicrobial functions. We demonstrate that LL-37 is a potent inhibitor of human neutrophil apoptosis, signaling through P2X(7)(More)
The extensive world-wide morbidity and mortality caused by influenza A viruses highlights the need for new insights into the host immune response and novel treatment approaches. Cationic Host Defense Peptides (CHDP, also known as antimicrobial peptides), which include cathelicidins and defensins, are key components of the innate immune system that are(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess whether fine and ultrafine particles (nanoparticles) have the capacity to activate factors in serum that would induce macrophage migration. This is a model previously reported to investigate complement activation by other respirable particles and fibres. METHOD Foetal bovine serum was exposed to varying doses of fine and nanoparticle(More)
BACKGROUND Particulate air pollution (PM(10)) consists of a mixture of components, including nanoparticles and metals. Studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that transition metals can potentiate the ability of nanoparticles to induce lung inflammation and that the zinc content of PM(10) was largely responsible for their potential to induce(More)
Cationic host defense peptides are key, evolutionarily conserved components of the innate immune system. The human cathelicidin LL-37 is an important cationic host defense peptide up-regulated in infection and inflammation, specifically in the human lung, and was shown to enhance the pulmonary clearance of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa(More)
Alveolar macrophages are a key cell in dealing with particles deposited in the lungs and in determining the subsequent response to that particle exposure. Nanoparticles are considered a potential threat to the lungs and the mechanism of pulmonary response to nanoparticles is currently under intense scrutiny. The type II alveolar epithelial cell has(More)
To develop a more effective vaccination method against H5N1 virus, we investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy after skin vaccination using microneedles coated with influenza virus-like particles containing hemagglutinin derived from A/Vietnam/1203/04 H5N1 virus (H5 VLPs). A single microneedle vaccination of mice with H5 VLPs induced(More)
Cathelicidins are CHDP with essential roles in innate host defense but also more recently associated with the pathogenesis of certain chronic diseases. These peptides have microbicidal potential and the capacity to modulate innate immunity and inflammatory processes. PMN are key innate immune effector cells with pivotal roles in defense against infection.(More)
Increased levels of particulate air pollution (PM10) have been implicated as a causal agent in pulmonary disease exacerbation and increased deaths from respiratory and cardiovascular disorders. The exact mechanism by which PM10 drives toxicity in the lung is still unknown, but studies have focused on inhibition of macrophage function and impaired alveolar(More)
 The global burden of morbidity and mortality arising from viral infections is high; however, the development of effective therapeutics has been slow. As our understanding of innate immunity has expanded over recent years, knowledge of natural host defenses against viral infections has started to offer potential for novel therapeutic strategies. An area of(More)