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Human cortical and trabecular bones are formed by individual osteons and bone packets, respectively, which are produced at different time points during the (re)modeling cycle by the coupled activity of bone cells. This leads to a heterogeneously mineralized bone material with a characteristic bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD) reflecting bone(More)
The degree of mineralization of bone matrix is an important factor in determining the mechanical competence of bone. The remodeling and modeling activities of bone cells together with the time course of mineralization of newly formed bone matrix generate a characteristic bone mineralization density distribution (BMDD). In this study we investigated the(More)
The measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) using X-rays is usually employed to monitor the mineral content in a given portion of bone. However, this method cannot differentiate between changes in bone volume or in degree of mineralization of the bone matrix. In contrast to BMD, bone mineral density distribution (BMDD), as measured on bone sections by(More)
The shape, the typical orientation, and the average size of mineral crystals in different types of mineralized tissues were investigated by means of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). To rule out eventual artifacts due to sample preparation, four different standard preparation techniques were used and a comparison showed that the SAXS results were(More)
UNLABELLED Long-term effects of risedronate on bone mineral maturity/crystallinity and collagen cross-link ratio in triple iliac crest biopsies of osteoporotic women were evaluated. In this double-blinded study, 3- and 5-year treatment with risedronate arrested the tissue aging encountered in untreated osteoporosis and in osteoporosis treated with other(More)
Natural materials such as bone, tooth, and nacre are nanocomposites of proteins and minerals with superior strength. Why is the nanometer scale so important to such materials? Can we learn from this to produce superior nanomaterials in the laboratory? These questions motivate the present study where we show that the nanocomposites in nature exhibit a(More)
Structural materials in nature exhibit remarkable designs with building blocks, often hierarchically arranged from the nanometer to the macroscopic length scales. We report on the structural properties of biosilica observed in the hexactinellid sponge Euplectella sp. Consolidated, nanometer-scaled silica spheres are arranged in well-defined microscopic(More)
Both elastic modulus and fracture stress are known to increase with the amount of mineral deposited within collagen fibrils. Current mechanical models of mineralized fibrils, where mineral platelets are arranged in parallel arrays, reproduce the first effect but fail to predict an increase in fracture stress. Here, we propose a model with a staggered array(More)
Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) can provide information on mean size, predominant orientation and typical shape of mineral crystals in bone. In this paper, recent developments of this technique for application in bone research are reviewed. Then the structure of the collagen/mineral composite in bone, as determined by SAXS, is compared for a number of(More)
Scanning small-angle X-ray scattering (scanning SAXS) was applied for the first time on bone to compare results from SAXS directly with those from other position-sensitive methods, such as light and polarized light microscopy, back-scattered electron imaging, and radiographic imaging. Since scanning SAXS is a nondestructive method of investigation, images(More)