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Cerebellar and limbic system pathologies have been reported in persons with autism. Because these brain areas are involved centrally in the acquisition and performance in classical eye-blink conditioning, this study evaluated conditioning in 11 persons with autism. Compared to matched controls, persons with autism learned the task faster but performed(More)
RATIONALE Impulsivity is associated with increased risk for alcoholism. Alcohol also may increase impulsive behavior, although little is known about the processes underlying this effect. OBJECTIVES This study tested a model proposing that the executive processes of working memory (WM) and conditional associative learning (CAL) modulate behavioral(More)
This study tested the hypothesis that short-term memory (STM) capacity moderates the effect of social deviance on alcohol problems. Personality, cognitive ability, and alcohol use and abuse were assessed in the adult offspring of alcoholics (FHPs; n = 153) and the adult offspring of nonalcoholics (FHNs; n = 150). The results revealed that STM capacity(More)
This study tested a structural model of the association between familial risk, personality risk, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol abuse in a sample of 224 young adult offspring of alcoholics and 209 offspring of nonalcoholics. The results provided support for 2 personality-risk pathways, a social deviance proneness and an excitement/pleasure seeking path,(More)
We studied the degree of plasma tryptophan depletion produced by giving normal human males different amounts of a tryptophan-free (T-) amino acid mixture. From the results of this and other studies we concluded that the maximum degree of tryptophan depletion can be produced by a 31.5 g mixture of seven essential amino acids. Administration of a T- amino(More)
OBJECTIVE Males with a family history of alcoholism (Family History Positive [FHP]) have frequently been reported to show an attenuated amplitude of the P300 component of the EEG event-related potential (ERP). The purpose of the present study was to explore the influence of incentives on the amplitude of the P300 to Target stimuli in FHP and FHN (Family(More)
BACKGROUND Disinhibited, antisocial traits increase the risk for early-onset alcoholism. Research also suggests that decision biases which favor immediate large rewards regardless of long-term consequences may be important mechanisms associated with the biological substrates of antisocial traits. This study tested the hypothesis that early-onset alcoholism(More)
This article presents a cognitive-motivational theory (CMT) of the mechanisms associated with three basic dimensions of personality vulnerability to alcoholism, impulsivity/novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and excitement seeking. CMT describes the interrelationships between activity in basic motivational systems and attentional, decision-making and working(More)
Abnormalities in resting EEG may be associated with a predisposition to alcoholism. Research also suggests that high levels of negative affect are important mediators of the predisposition to alcoholism in the offspring of alcoholics. This study tested the hypothesis that the offspring of alcoholics show deficits in EEG alpha and excessive EEG beta(More)
Reduced executive cognitive ability is associated with alcohol dependence (AD) and other comorbid externalizing disorders. Working memory capacity, short-term memory, conditional associative learning, and intelligence were assessed in a sample (N = 477) with variation in lifetime histories of externalizing problems (conduct disorder, adult antisocial(More)