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BACKGROUND The global burden of disease attributable to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains unknown. We aimed to estimate the global incidence of and mortality from episodes of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) due to RSV in children younger than 5 years in 2005. METHODS We estimated the incidence of RSV-associated ALRI in children younger(More)
With the intensifying global efforts to eradicate wild polioviruses, policymakers face complex decisions related to achieving eradication and managing posteradication risks. These decisions and the expanding use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) trigger renewed interest in poliovirus immunity, particularly the role of mucosal immunity in the(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess outcomes after antiretroviral therapy (ART) in adolescents and youth in Haiti, a country with a generalized epidemic of infection with HIV-1. METHODS An assessment was made of survival, plasma HIV-1 ribonucleic acid (RNA) concentrations and HIV-1 drug resistance patterns after 12 months of ART in patients aged 13-25 years who presented(More)
BACKGROUND Since 1999 GHESKIO, a large voluntary counseling and HIV testing center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, has had an ongoing collaboration with the Haitian Ministry of Health to reduce the rate of mother to child HIV transmission. There are limited data on the ability to administer complex regimens for reducing mother to child transmission and on risk(More)
BACKGROUND The global burden of disease attributable to seasonal influenza virus in children is unknown. We aimed to estimate the global incidence of and mortality from lower respiratory infections associated with influenza in children younger than 5 years. METHODS We estimated the incidence of influenza episodes, influenza-associated acute lower(More)
Many respiratory viruses cause morbidity in young children, but a licensed vaccine and effective oral therapy are available only for influenzavirus. To determine the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza illness, we prospectively followed up 1665 healthy children aged <5 years who were enrolled in the Vanderbilt Vaccine Clinic at some point from 1974(More)
OBJECTIVE Although influenza immunization is recommended for children with high-risk medical conditions, the majority of such children do not receive influenza vaccine. This study was designed to measure the burden of influenza among children with asthma and other chronic medical conditions. STUDY DESIGN We performed a retrospective cohort study of(More)
The roles of IgG and secretory IgA in the protection of the respiratory tract (RT) against influenza infection remain unclear. Passive immunization with Ab doses resulting in serum IgG anti-influenza virus Ab titers far in excess of those observed in immune mice has compounded the problem. We compared the effects of i.v. anti-influenza virus IgG and i.v.(More)
Over a 20-year period in a population of otherwise healthy children, respiratory viruses have been cultured from nasal wash specimens from each child with a clinically significant respiratory illness. Since efforts are underway to develop vaccines for prevention of illness due to parainfluenza virus (PIV) type 3, the epidemiologic characteristics of PIVs(More)
Within the past 4 years, poliomyelitis outbreaks associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) have occurred in Hispaniola (2000-01), the Philippines (2001), and Madagascar (2001-02). Retrospective studies have also detected the circulation of endemic cVDPV in Egypt (1988-93) and the likely localized spread of oral poliovirus vaccine(More)