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BACKGROUND The global burden of disease attributable to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains unknown. We aimed to estimate the global incidence of and mortality from episodes of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) due to RSV in children younger than 5 years in 2005. METHODS We estimated the incidence of RSV-associated ALRI in children younger(More)
BACKGROUND Since 1999 GHESKIO, a large voluntary counseling and HIV testing center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, has had an ongoing collaboration with the Haitian Ministry of Health to reduce the rate of mother to child HIV transmission. There are limited data on the ability to administer complex regimens for reducing mother to child transmission and on risk(More)
BACKGROUND The global burden of disease attributable to seasonal influenza virus in children is unknown. We aimed to estimate the global incidence of and mortality from lower respiratory infections associated with influenza in children younger than 5 years. METHODS We estimated the incidence of influenza episodes, influenza-associated acute lower(More)
Within the past 4 years, poliomyelitis outbreaks associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) have occurred in Hispaniola (2000-01), the Philippines (2001), and Madagascar (2001-02). Retrospective studies have also detected the circulation of endemic cVDPV in Egypt (1988-93) and the likely localized spread of oral poliovirus vaccine(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the impact of antimicrobials in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) from HIV(+) and HIV(-) women on target cell infection with HIV. Since female reproductive tract (FRT) secretions contain a spectrum of antimicrobials, we hypothesized that CVL from healthy HIV(+) and (-) women inhibit HIV infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS CVL(More)
BACKGROUND Replication-competent virus vector vaccines might have advantages compared with non-replicating vector vaccines. We tested the safety and immunogenicity of an oral adenovirus serotype 4 vector vaccine candidate (Ad4-H5-Vtn) expressing the haemagglutinin from an avian influenza A H5N1 virus. METHODS We did this phase 1 study at four sites in the(More)
Successful and sustained efforts have been made to curtail the major cholera epidemic that occurred in Haiti in 2010 with the promotion of hygiene and sanitation measures, training of health personnel and establishment of treatment centers nationwide. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was introduced by the Haitian Ministry of Health as a pilot project in urban and(More)
BACKGROUND Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in children. It is estimated to cause approximately 33.8 million new episodes of ALRI in children annually, 96% of these occurring in developing countries. It is also estimated to result in about 53,000 to 199,000 deaths annually in young children.(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive bacterial pathogen that causes invasive life-threatening disease worldwide. This organism also commonly colonizes the upper respiratory epithelium in an asymptomatic fashion. To invade, this pathogen must traverse the respiratory epithelial barrier, allowing it to cause disease locally or disseminate(More)
The role of prostanoids in modulating respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is unknown. We found that RSV infection in mice increases production of prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2)). Mice that overexpress PGI(2) synthase selectively in bronchial epithelium are protected against RSV-induced weight loss and have decreased peak viral replication and gamma(More)