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The controlled regulation of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes by the endothelial form of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS or NOS3) is essential for cardiovascular health. In recent years, a picture of complex and precise regulation of eNOS activity involving multi-site phosphorylation of specific serine and threonine residues(More)
AMG 416 (velcalcetide), a novel peptide agonist of the calcium-sensing receptor, lowers plasma parathyroid hormone in preclinical uremic animal models and in normal healthy individuals. Here, we studied its efficacy in hemodialysis patients suffering from secondary hyperparathyroidism. Major inclusion criteria were hemodialysis for at least 3 months, serum(More)
The co-transporter activity of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) 1 (NKCC1) is dependent on phosphorylation. In this study we show the energy-sensing kinase AMPK inhibits NKCC1 activity. Three separate AMPK activators (AICAR, Phenformin and A-769662) inhibited NKCC1 flux in a variety of nucleated cells. Treatment with A-769662 resulted in a reduction of NKCC1(T212/T217)(More)
In the kidney nitric oxide (NO) has numerous important functions including the regulation of renal haemodynamics, maintenance of medullary perfusion, mediation of pressure-natriuresis, blunting of tubuloglomerular feedback, inhibition of tubular sodium reabsorption and modulation of renal sympathetic neural activity. The net effect of NO in the kidney is to(More)
The ultrasensitive energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) orchestrates the regulation of energy-generating and energy-consuming pathways. AMPK is highly expressed in the kidney where it is reported to be involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes including ion transport, podocyte function, and diabetic renal hypertrophy.(More)
Obesity is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). The mechanisms linking obesity and CKD include systemic changes such as high blood pressure and hyperglycemia, and intrarenal effects relating to lipid accumulation. Normal lipid metabolism is integral to renal physiology and disturbances of renal lipid and energy metabolism are(More)
A fundamental aspect of acute renal ischemia is energy depletion, manifest as a falling level of ATP that is associated with a simultaneous rise in AMP. The energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated by a rising AMP-to-ATP ratio, but its role in acute renal ischemia is unknown. AMPK is activated in the ischemic heart and is reported to(More)
Endothelial cell lipotoxicity mediated by accumulation of free fatty acids is an early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The energy-sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key regulator of endothelial cell lipid metabolism. To test the hypothesis that bradykinin (BK) regulates AMPK and fatty acid oxidation in endothelium, stimulations of(More)
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key controller of cellular energy metabolism. We studied its expression and regulation by salt handling in the kidney. Immunoprecipitation and Western blots of protein lysates from whole rat kidney using subunit-specific antibodies showed that the alpha1-catalytic subunit is expressed in the kidney, associated(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key energy sensor, known to regulate energy metabolism in diverse cell types. Hypoxia is encountered frequently in the microenvironments of inflammatory lesions and is a critical regulator of function in inflammatory cells. Energy deficiency is one of the consequences of hypoxia, but its potential role in modulating(More)