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The airway epithelium provides a protective barrier against inhaled environmental toxins and microorganisms, and epithelial injury initiates a number of processes to restore its barrier integrity, including activation of matrix metalloproteinases such as MMP-9 (92-kD gelatinase B). Airway epithelial cells continuously produce nitric oxide (NO), which has(More)
The use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has been postulated to be the most effective strategy for developing patient-specific respiratory epithelial cells, which may be valuable for lung-related cell therapy and lung tissue engineering. We generated a relatively homogeneous population of alveolar epithelial type II (AETII) and type I (AETI) cells(More)
A balance sheet describing the integrated homeostasis of secretion, absorption, and surface movement of liquids on pulmonary surfaces has remained elusive. It remains unclear whether the alveolus exhibits an intra-alveolar ion/liquid transport physiology or whether it secretes ions/liquid that may communicate with airway surfaces. Studies employing isolated(More)
Traditional stem cell differentiation protocols make use of a variety of cytokines including growth factors (GFs) and inhibitors in an effort to provide appropriate signals for tissue specific differentiation. In this study, iPSC-derived type II pneumocytes (iPSC-ATII) as well as native isolated human type II pneumocytes (hATII) were differentiated toward a(More)
Alveolar type (AT)I and ATII cells are central to maintaining normal alveolar fluid homeostasis. When disrupted, they contribute to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Research on ATII cells has been limited by the inability to propagate primary cells in vitro to study their specific functional properties.(More)
Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are Zn-containing endopeptidases involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix components and are typically secreted in a latent (pro-MMP) form and activated either by proteolytic or oxidative disruption of a conserved cysteine switch. Several recent studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO) can contribute to the(More)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome with high mortality rates (~50%) is associated with a novel group 2c betacoronavirus designated Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We synthesized a panel of contiguous cDNAs that spanned the entire genome. Following contig assembly into genome-length cDNA, transfected full-length transcripts recovered(More)
Nitric oxide (NO(.-)) is produced by many diverse cell types as a cellular or intracellular signaling molecule, by the activation of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs). All three known NOS isoforms are expressed within the respiratory tract and mediate various airway functional properties such as airway smooth muscle tone, ciliary function, epithelial(More)
Type II cells are the defenders of the alveolus. They produce surfactant to prevent alveolar collapse, they actively transport water to prevent filling of the air sacs that would otherwise prevent gas exchange, and they differentiate to type I epithelial cells. They are an indispensable component of functional lung tissue. To understand the functionality of(More)
Acute lung inflammation and injury were induced by intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in normal and type 2 nitric oxide synthase (NOS2)-deficient (NOS2-/-) C57BL/6 mice. LPS-induced increases in extravasated airway neutrophils and in lung lavage fluid of TNF-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 were markedly lower in NOS2-/- than in(More)