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The biogenic amines serotonin and octopamine are present in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Serotonin, detected histochemically in whole mounts, is localized in two pharyngeal neurons that appear to be neurosecretory. Octopamine, identified radioenzymatically in crude extracts, probably is also localized in a few neurons. Exogenous serotonin and(More)
Social and solitary feeding in natural Caenorhabditis elegans isolates are associated with two alleles of the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) NPR-1: social feeders contain NPR-1 215F, whereas solitary feeders contain NPR-1 215V. Here we identify FMRFamide-related neuropeptides (FaRPs) encoded by the flp-18 and flp-21 genes as NPR-1 ligands and show(More)
A cloned seven transmembrane-spanning Drosophila octopamine/tyramine receptor, permanently expressed in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line, both inhibits adenylate cyclase activity and leads to the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels by separate G-protein-coupled pathways. Agonists of this receptor (octopamine and tyramine), differing by only a single(More)
Insect octopamine receptors carry out many functional roles traditionally associated with vertebrate adrenergic receptors. These include control of carbohydrate metabolism, modulation of muscular tension, modulation of sensory inputs and modulation of memory and learning. The activation of octopamine receptors mediating many of these actions leads to(More)
Insect octopamine receptors are G-protein coupled receptors. They can be coupled to second messenger pathways to mediate either increases or decreases in intracellular cyclic AMP levels or the generation of intracellular calcium signals. Insect octopamine receptors were originally classified on the basis of second messenger changes induced in a variety of(More)
1. Three different pharmacological classes of octopamine receptor mediate the actions of octopamine on the locust extensor-tibiae neuromuscular preparation. A receptor classification scheme is proposed based on the results of detailed studies with agonists and antagonists. 2. Octopamine1 class receptors mediate the slowing of a myogenic rhythm found in a(More)
A cDNA clone is described that encodes a novel G-protein-coupled dopamine receptor (DopR99B) expressed in Drosophila heads. The DopR99B receptor maps to 99B3-5, close to the position of the octopamine/tyramine receptor gene at 99A10-B1, suggesting that the two may be related through a gene duplication. Agonist stimulation of DopR99B receptors expressed in(More)
Nongenomic response pathways mediate many of the rapid actions of steroid hormones, but the mechanisms underlying such responses remain controversial. In some cases, cell-surface expression of classical nuclear steroid receptors has been suggested to mediate these effects, but, in a few instances, specific G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been(More)
Animals modify food-seeking behavior and metabolism according to perceived food availability. Here we show that, in the roundworm C. elegans, release of neuropeptides from interneurons that are directly postsynaptic to olfactory, gustatory, and thermosensory neurons coordinately regulates behavior and metabolism. Animals lacking these neuropeptides, encoded(More)
The mechanism of coupling of a cloned Drosophila D1-like dopamine receptor, DopR99B, to multiple second messenger systems when expressed in Xenopus oocytes is described. The receptor is coupled directly to the generation of a rapid, transient intracellular Ca2+ signal, monitored as changes in inward current mediated by the oocyte endogenous Ca2+-activated(More)