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BACKGROUND The histological features of osteitis in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in animal studies induced by bacterial inoculation into maxillary sinuses revealed inflammatory involvement of the underlying bone matrix and/or the Haversian system; however, human studies do not mention these findings. The objective of this study was to investigate the(More)
BACKGROUND Osteitis is a feature of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and often associated with recalcitrant disease. Radiological characteristics of osteitic sinus changes are commonly reported in practice but the clinical and pathologic significance is poorly defined. The objective of this study was to correlate the Kennedy Osteitis Score (KOS) to(More)
BACKGROUND Causes of osteitis in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) other than previous surgery are poorly defined. Patients with eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) have more severe disease and poorer outcomes despite repeated surgery. Associations between osteitis and markers of ECRS are not well described. METHODS A cross-sectional study of CRS patients undergoing sinus(More)
BACKGROUND Tissue eosinophilia in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a marker of inflammatory disorders recalcitrant to surgical intervention. Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is traditionally associated with asthma, polyps, aspirin sensitivity, high serum eosinophilia, and elevated immunoglobulin E (IgE). However, patients with ECRS may not present(More)
BACKGROUND Osteitic bone is a feature of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), potentially playing a role in pathogenesis. Although seen after previous endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS), it is also a de novo feature in patients without prior interventions. In these patients, osteitis is associated with high tissue and serum eosinophilia. However, the impact of(More)
The frequent occurrence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) containing weakly tumorigenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) following iatrogenic immunosuppression for organ transplantation remains incompletely understood. Here we address this problem in the light of recent insights into (1) the association of low-risk β-HPVs with skin SCCs in the rare(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease defined by epithelial inflammation. The link between measures of traditional disease severity and markers of epithelial inflammation is poorly understood as prior research has focused on presence of polyps or degree of eosinophilia. The expression of 3 epithelial derived cytokines implicated(More)
BACKGROUND The initiating mediators of T-helper 2 inflammation, often seen in eosinophillic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), remains poorly understood. Interleukin (IL) 25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) are epithelial-derived cytokines implicated in the initiation of T-helper 2 inflammation and eosinophilia in other diseases. The expression of(More)
BACKGROUND Intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) are well established in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis. Although reversible atrophy of keratinized skin is seen with corticosteroids, the respiratory mucosa is histologically very different and but concerns remain among patients and some health-care professionals(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammatory dysfunction is considered an important part of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Corticosteroid therapy has been widely used in CRS. Effective topical delivery has been previously problematic. The post-endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) corridor is essential for adequate topical drug access. Devices delivering large volume with positive(More)