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  • Simeon Djankov, Rafael La Porta, +22 authors Peter Wright
  • 2000
We present new data on the regulation of entry of start-up firms in 75 countries. The data set contains information on the number of procedures, official time, and official cost that a start-up must bear before it can operate legally. The official costs of entry are extremely high in most countries. Countries with heavier regulation of entry have higher(More)
Many gene sequences in eukaryotic genomes encode entire proteins or large segments of proteins that lack a well-structured three-dimensional fold. Disordered regions can be highly conserved between species in both composition and sequence and, contrary to the traditional view that protein function equates with a stable three-dimensional structure,(More)
A major challenge in the post-genome era will be determination of the functions of the encoded protein sequences. Since it is generally assumed that the function of a protein is closely linked to its three-dimensional structure, prediction or experimental determination of the library of protein structures is a matter of high priority. However, a large(More)
There are now numerous examples of proteins that are unstructured or only partially structured under physiological conditions and yet are nevertheless functional. Such proteins are especially prevalent in eukaryotes. In many cases, intrinsically disordered proteins adopt folded structures upon binding to their biological targets. Many new examples of(More)
We used nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation dispersion to characterize higher energy conformational substates of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase. Each intermediate in the catalytic cycle samples low-lying excited states whose conformations resemble the ground-state structures of preceding and following intermediates. Substrate and cofactor(More)
Random coil chemical shifts are commonly used to detect secondary structure elements in proteins in chemical shift index calculations. While this technique is very reliable for folded proteins, application to unfolded proteins reveals significant deviations from measured random coil shifts for certain nuclei. While some of these deviations can be ascribed(More)
Molecular recognition is central to all biological processes. For the past 50 years, Koshland's 'induced fit' hypothesis has been the textbook explanation for molecular recognition events. However, recent experimental evidence supports an alternative mechanism. 'Conformational selection' postulates that all protein conformations pre-exist, and the ligand(More)
Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (LEF-1) and the closely related T-cell factor 1 (TCF-1) are sequence-specific and cell-type-specific DNA-binding proteins that play important regulatory roles in organogenesis and thymocyte differentiation. LEF-1 participates in regulation of the enhancer associated with the T cell receptor (TCR)-alpha gene by inducing a(More)
Protein folding and binding are analogous processes, in which the protein 'searches' for favourable intramolecular or intermolecular interactions on a funnelled energy landscape. Many eukaryotic proteins are disordered under physiological conditions, and fold into ordered structures only on binding to their cellular targets. The mechanism by which folding(More)
The nuclear factor CREB activates transcription of target genes in part through direct interactions with the KIX domain of the coactivator CBP in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The solution structure of the complex formed by the phosphorylated kinase-inducible domain (pKID) of CREB with KIX reveals that pKID undergoes a coil-->helix folding transition(More)