Peter E Reynolds

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Glycopeptide resistance in enterococci results from the production of peptidoglycan precursors with low affinity for these antibiotics. The mobility of the resistance genes by transposition and conjugation and the ability of the resistance proteins to interfere with synthesis of normal precursors in different hosts indicate that dissemination into other(More)
Glycopeptide antibiotics, including vancomycin and teicoplanin, are large, rigid molecules that inhibit a late stage in bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis. The three-dimensional structure contains a cleft into which peptides of highly specific configuration (L-aa-D-aa-D-aa) can fit: such sequences are found only in bacterial cell walls, hence(More)
Cloning and nucleotide sequencing indicated that transposon Tn1546 from Enterococcus faecium BM4147 encodes a 23,365 Da protein, VanX, required for glycopeptide resistance. The vanX gene was located downstream from genes encoding the VanA ligase and the VanH dehydrogenase which synthesize the depsipeptide D-alanyl-D-lactate (D-Ala-D-Lac). In the presence of(More)
The vanB gene cluster mediates glycopeptide resistance by production of peptidoglycan precursors ending in the depsipeptide D-alanyl-D-lactate (D-Ala-D-Lac) instead of D-Ala-D-Ala found in susceptible enterococci. Synthesis of D-Ala-D-Lac and hydrolysis of D-Ala-D-Ala is controlled by the VanR(B)S(B) two-component regulatory system that activates(More)
The vanR, vanS, vanH, vanA, and vanX genes of enterococcal transposon Tn1546 were introduced into the chromosome of Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2. Complementation of this portion of the van gene cluster by a plasmid encoding VanY D,D-carboxypeptidase led to a fourfold increase in the vancomycin MIC (from 16 to 64 micrograms/ml). Multicopy plasmids pAT80 (vanR(More)
The lantibiotic mersacidin exerts its bactericidal action by inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. It interferes with the membrane-associated transglycosylation reaction; during this step the ultimate monomeric peptidoglycan precursor, undecaprenyl-pyrophosphoryl-MurNAc-(pentapeptide)-GlcNAc (lipid II) is converted into polymeric nascent peptidoglycan.(More)
Transposon Tn1546 from Enterococcus faecium BM4147 mediates high-level resistance to the glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin. Tn 1546 encodes a dehydrogenase (VanH) and a ligase (VanA) that synthesize D-alanyl-D-lactate (D-Ala-D-Lac), a D,D-dipeptidase (VanX) that hydrolyses D-Ala-D-Ala and a two-component regulatory system (VanR-VanS) that(More)
Inducible resistance to high levels of glycopeptide antibiotics in clinical isolates of enterococci is mediated by Tn1546 or related transposons. Tn1546 encodes the VanH dehydrogenase which reduces pyruvate to D-lactate (D-Lac) and the VanA ligase which catalyses synthesis of the depsipeptide D-alanyl-D-lactate (D-Ala-D-Lac). The depsipeptide replaces the(More)
Enterococcus faecium BM4339 was constitutively resistant to vancomycin (MIC, 64 microg/ml) and to low levels of teicoplanin (MIC, 4 microg/ml). A 605-bp product obtained with the V1 and V2 primers for amplification of genes encoding D-Ala:D-Ala ligases and related glycopeptide resistance proteins was sequenced after cloning. The deduced amino acid sequence(More)