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The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2001, American Psychological Association, 2010) calls for the reporting of effect sizes and their confidence intervals. Estimates of effect size are useful for determining the practical or theoretical importance of an effect, the relative contributions of(More)
The debate surrounding the relationship between facial attractiveness and distinctiveness appears to arise from different definitions of distinctiveness. In our study unfamiliar faces were rated for attractiveness, age, and distinctiveness. Two measures of distinctiveness were used: ease of spotting the face in a crowd (traditional) and deviation from an(More)
Eight experiments investigated the effects of visual, spatial, auditory, and executive interference on the symbolic comparison of animal size and ferocity, semantic goodness of words, and numbers. Dynamic visual noise (DVN) and the reading of visually presented stimulus items were shown to selectively interfere with response times on the animal size(More)
The benefits of expanding retrieval practice for preschool children were explored in two experiments. In Experiment 1, three groups learned names for six plush toy pigs using expanding retrieval practice, a reward incentive, or a control condition. Reward did not significantly improve learning but retrieval practice doubled recall. In Experiment 2, three(More)
Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) often develop severe diaphragmatic and limb skeletal muscle dysfunction. Impaired muscle function in ARDS is associated with increased mortality, increased duration of mechanical ventilation, and functional disability in survivors. In this review, we propose that muscle dysfunction in ARDS can be(More)
Effect sizes are omitted from many research articles and are rarely discussed. To help researchers evaluate effect sizes we collected values for the more commonly reported effect size measures (partial eta squared and d) from papers reporting memory research published in 2010. Cohen's small, medium, and large generic guideline values for d mapped neatly(More)
Underwater close visual inspection (CVI) and magnetic particle inspection (MPI) are major components of the commercial diver's job of nondestructive testing and the maintenance of subsea structures. We explored the accuracy of CVI in Experiment 1 and that of MPI in Experiment 2 and observed high error rates (47% and 24%, respectively). Performance was(More)
INTRODUCTION The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is a common cognitive screening test, but its utility in identifying impairments in survivors of acute respiratory failure is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate MMSE performance versus a concurrently administered detailed neuropsychological test battery in survivors of acute respiratory(More)
In four experiments, we extended the study of part-set cuing to expository texts and pictorial scenes. In Experiment 1, recall of expository text was tested with and without part-set cues in the same order as the original text; cues strongly impaired recall. Experiment 2 repeated Experiment 1 but used cues in random order and found significant but reduced(More)
BACKGROUND Skeletal muscle wasting in acute lung injury (ALI) patients increases the morbidity and mortality associated with this critical illness. The contribution of laryngeal muscle wasting to these outcomes is unknown, though voice impairments and aspiration are common in intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. We evaluated the intrinsic laryngeal abductor(More)