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The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2001, American Psychological Association, 2010) calls for the reporting of effect sizes and their confidence intervals. Estimates of effect size are useful for determining the practical or theoretical importance of an effect, the relative contributions of(More)
METHOD This paper presents methods of measuring the longitudinal relaxation time using inversion recovery turbo spin echo (IR-TSE) and magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequences, comparing and optimizing these sequences, reporting T1 values for water protons measured from brain tissue at 1.5, 3, and 7 T. T1 was measured in cortical grey(More)
An optimized code to perform the near-real-time retrieval of profiles of pressure, temperature, and volume mixing ratio (VMR) of five key species (O(3), H(2)O, HNO(3), CH(4), and N(2)O) from infrared limb spectra recorded by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) experiment on board the European Space Agency (ESA)(More)
Eight experiments investigated the effects of visual, spatial, auditory, and executive interference on the symbolic comparison of animal size and ferocity, semantic goodness of words, and numbers. Dynamic visual noise (DVN) and the reading of visually presented stimulus items were shown to selectively interfere with response times on the animal size(More)
A puzzling question arising from imagery research is why no relationship has been found between self-reports of imagery and performance on spatial tests thought to require the use of imagery. To investigate this, spatial ability, measured by performance on two spatial tests, was compared with performance on the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire(More)
The debate surrounding the relationship between facial attractiveness and distinctiveness appears to arise from different definitions of distinctiveness. In our study unfamiliar faces were rated for attractiveness, age, and distinctiveness. Two measures of distinctiveness were used: ease of spotting the face in a crowd (traditional) and deviation from an(More)
It is conventionally assumed that many faces are relatively typical and few are distinctive (e.g. Valentine, 1991), producing a highly skewed distribution. However, Burton and Vokey (1998) argue that the distribution will be normal, and our review of previous research suggested this is true. In three studies we explored the distributions using different(More)
The most common design of a functional MRI (fMRI) experiment is a block design. The use of rapid imaging, however, and carefully designed paradigms makes the separation of cognitive events possible. Such experiments make use of event-related paradigms, in which a task involving several cognitive processes is repeated. In analyzing data from such(More)
Kay (1955) presented a text passage to participants on a weekly basis and found that most errors and omissions in recall persisted despite repeated re-presentation of the text. Experiment I replicated and extended Kay's original research, demonstrating that after a first recall attempt there was very little evidence of further learning, whether measured in(More)
The benefits of expanding retrieval practice for preschool children were explored in two experiments. In Experiment 1, three groups learned names for six plush toy pigs using expanding retrieval practice, a reward incentive, or a control condition. Reward did not significantly improve learning but retrieval practice doubled recall. In Experiment 2, three(More)