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Solid tumors, including the aggressive primary brain cancer glioblastoma multiforme, develop resistance to cell death, in part as a result of a switch from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to cytoplasmic glycolysis. This metabolic remodeling is accompanied by mitochondrial hyperpolarization. We tested whether the small-molecule and orphan drug(More)
Most solid tumors are characterized by a metabolic shift from glucose oxidation to glycolysis, in part due to actively suppressed mitochondrial function, a state that favors resistance to apoptosis. Suppressed mitochondrial function may also contribute to the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) and angiogenesis. We have previously shown that(More)
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is caused by excessive proliferation of vascular cells, which occlude the lumen of pulmonary arteries (PAs) and lead to right ventricular failure. The cause of the vascular remodeling in PAH remains unknown, and the prognosis of PAH remains poor. Abnormal mitochondria in PAH PA smooth muscle cells (SMCs) suppress(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence suggestive of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pulmonary arteries of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension has been described for decades but has never been therapeutically targeted. ER stress is a feature of many conditions associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension like hypoxia, inflammation, or loss-of-function(More)
DNA transcription, replication, and repair are regulated by histone acetylation, a process that requires the generation of acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA). Here, we show that all the subunits of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) are also present and functional in the nucleus of mammalian cells. We found that knockdown of nuclear PDC in isolated(More)
The eukaryote's mitochondrial network is perhaps the cell's most sophisticated and dynamic responsive sensing system. Integrating metabolic, oxygen, or danger signals with inputs from other organelles, as well as local and systemic signals, mitochondria have a profound impact on vascular function in both health and disease. This review highlights recently(More)
Right ventricular (RV) failure is an important clinical problem with no available therapies, largely because its molecular mechanisms are unknown. Mitochondrial remodeling resulting to a metabolic shift toward glycolysis has been described in RV hypertrophy (RVH), but it is unknown whether this is beneficial or detrimental. While clinically RV failure(More)
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a vascular remodeling disease characterized by enhanced proliferation and suppressed apoptosis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). This apoptosis resistance is characterized by PASMC mitochondrial hyperpolarization [in part, due to decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity], decreased mitochondrial(More)
RATIONALE Right ventricular (RV) failure is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pulmonary hypertension, but its mechanism remains unknown. Myocyte enhancer factor 2 (Mef2) has been implicated in RV development, regulating metabolic, contractile, and angiogenic genes. Moreover, Mef2 regulates microRNAs that have emerged as important determinants of(More)
Suppression of mitochondrial function promoting proliferation and apoptosis suppression has been described in the pulmonary arteries and extrapulmonary tissues in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the cause of this metabolic remodeling is unknown. Mice lacking sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrial deacetylase, have increased acetylation and inhibition(More)