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In addition to affecting respiration and vascular tone, deviations from normal CO(2) alter pH, consciousness, and seizure propensity. Outside the brainstem, however, the mechanisms by which CO(2) levels modify neuronal function are unknown. In the hippocampal slice preparation, increasing CO(2), and thus decreasing pH, increased the extracellular(More)
Kynurenic acid (KYNA), a classical ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist is also purported to block the α7-subtype nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7* nAChR). Although many published studies cite this potential effect, few have studied it directly. In this study, the α7*-selective agonist, choline, was pressure-applied to interneurons in hippocampal(More)
In a recent study, we reported that a restriction fragment length polymorphism associated with the alpha4 nicotinic receptor gene (Chrna4) may play a role in regulating differential sensitivity of LS and SS mouse lines to the seizure-inducing effects of nicotine. Since the alpha4 subunit (CHRNA4) is often found as a heteromer with the beta2 subunit(More)
The pharmacology of nicotinic receptor-mediated seizures was investigated in C3H mice. Eleven nicotinic agonists and six antagonists were administered centrally (i.c.v.). Epibatidine and epiboxidine were the most potent agonists tested, whereas acetylcholine and the alpha7*-selective compounds 3-(2,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-anabaseine (GTS-21) and anabasine,(More)
The tryptophan metabolite, kynurenic acid (KYNA), is classically known to be an antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Within the last decade several reports have been published suggesting that KYNA also blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α7 subunit (α7*). Most of these reports involve either indirect measurements of(More)
The Delphinium alkaloids methyllycaconitine (MLA), nudicauline, 14-deacetylnudicauline (14-DN), barbinine, and deltaline were investigated for their effects on neuromuscular transmission in lizards. The substituent at C14 provides the only structural difference among the alkaloids MLA, nudicauline, 14-DN, and barbinine. Deltaline lacks the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Tobacco and alcohol are often co-abused producing interactive effects in the brain. Although nicotine enhances memory while ethanol impairs it, variable cognitive changes have been reported from concomitant use. This study was designed to determine how nicotine and alcohol interact at synaptic sites to modulate neuronal processes. (More)
Metaplasticity describes the stabilization of synaptic strength such that strong synapses are likely to remain strong while weak synapses are likely to remain weak. A potential mechanism for metaplasticity is a correlated change in both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated postsynaptic conductance and synaptic strength. Synchronous activation of(More)
A salient feature of prefrontal cortex organization is the vast diversity of cell types that support the temporal integration of events required for sculpting future responses. A major obstacle in understanding the routing of information among prefrontal neuronal subtypes is the inability to manipulate the electrical activity of JHQHWLFDOO\ GH¿QHG FHOO(More)
The tryptophan metabolite, kynurenic acid (KYNA), is classically known to be an antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Within the last decade several reports have been published suggesting that KYNA also blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α7 subunit (α7*). Most of these reports involve either indirect measurements of(More)
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