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Reversible photoswitching of individual molecules has been demonstrated for a number of mutants of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). To date, however, a limited number of switching events with slow response to light have been achieved at the single-molecule level. Here, we report reversible photoswitching characteristics observed in individual molecules(More)
The fast and reversible on/off switching of the fluorescence emission of the GFP-like fluorescent protein Dronpa has attracted considerable interest for applications in subdiffraction imaging. In this paper we study the use of a donut-mode beam in combination with two more overlapping laser beams to increase the imaging resolution through selective(More)
We present Localizer, a freely available and open source software package that implements the computational data processing inherent to several types of superresolution fluorescence imaging, such as localization (PALM/STORM/GSDIM) and fluctuation imaging (SOFI/pcSOFI). Localizer delivers high accuracy and performance and comes with a fully featured and(More)
In wide-field super-resolution microscopy, investigating the nanoscale structure of cellular processes, and resolving fast dynamics and morphological changes in cells requires algorithms capable of working with a high-density of emissive fluorophores. Current deconvolution algorithms estimate fluorophore density by using representations of the signal that(More)
The photophysical properties and photoswitching scheme of the reversible photoswitchable green fluorescent protein-like fluorescent proteins Dronpa-2 and Dronpa-3 were investigated by means of ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and compared to those of the precursor protein Dronpa. The faster response to light and the faster dark(More)
In this Perspective we discuss recent trends in the development and applications of fluorescent proteins. We start by providing a historical and structural perspective of their spectroscopic and structural aspects and describe how these properties have made fluorescent proteins essential as 'smart labels' for biosensing and advanced fluorescence imaging. We(More)
Monomeric red fluorescent proteins (mRFPs) have become indispensable tools for studying protein dynamics, interactions and functions in the cellular environment. Their emission spectrum can be well separated from other fluorescent proteins, and their monomeric structure preserves the natural function of fusion proteins. However, previous photophysical(More)
Superresolution fluorescence microscopy overcomes the diffraction resolution barrier and allows the molecular intricacies of life to be revealed with greatly enhanced detail. However, many current superresolution techniques still face limitations and their implementation is typically associated with a steep learning curve. Patterned illumination-based(More)
Recently, reversible photoswitching in bulk samples or in individual molecules of Dronpa, a mutant of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like fluorescent protein, has been demonstrated. Intense irradiation at 488 nm changed Dronpa in a dim protonated form, and weak irradiation at 405 nm restored it to the bright deprotonated form. Here, we report on the(More)