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Herbivorous insects are influenced by both 'bottom-up' forces mediated through host plants and 'top-down' forces from natural enemies. Few studies have tried to evaluate the relative importance of the two forces in determining the abundance of insects. The leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima Linnaeus sometimes occurs at high densities and severely damages the(More)
Induced increases in trichome density to grazing by herbivores have been suggested to increase plant resistance to future herbivore attack. In this paper we present results which show that plants of Salix cinerea L. respond to adult leaf beetle (Phratora vulgatissima L.) grazing by developing new leaves with an increased trichome density. The same plants(More)
The natural enemies attacking eggs (and young larvae) of the willow leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima were identified in the field. Three heteropterans were common natural enemies. The mirid Orthotylus marginalis was the most abundant and had an intermediate consumption rate in the lab, whereas the mirid Closterotomus fulvomaculatus was the least abundant(More)
To circumvent the inherent problem of discriminating between the cost of losing photosynthetic tissue and the cost of producing an inducible defence, the growth response of herbivore-damaged plants was compared with plants damaged mechanically to the same extent but without eliciting the defence. Two experiments were conducted, studying the response of(More)
BACKGROUND There is a general belief that insect outbreak risk is higher in plant monocultures than in natural and more diverse habitats, although empirical studies investigating this relationship are lacking. In this study, using density data collected over seven years at 40 study sites, we compare the temporal population variability of the leaf beetle(More)
The ESRAD 52-MHz and the EISCAT 224-MHz radars in northern Scandinavia observed thin layers of strongly enhanced radar echoes from the mesosphere (Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes – PMWE) during a solar proton event in November 2004. Using the interferometric capabilities of ESRAD it was found that the scatterers responsible for PMWE show very high horizontal(More)
Solar wind plasma ux correlations between data from three spacecraft { IMP 8, WIND, and INTERBALL-1 { were analyzed for approximately four months during late 1995 and mid 1996. The data were split into 6-hour segments, resulting in a total of 397 segments where data from at least one pair of spacecraft could be correlated. The results show that the average(More)
It has been suggested that the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), has developed distinct populations inhabiting rice Oryza sativa (Linnaeus) and water-oats Zizania latifolia (Turcz). In this study, we compared several biological traits between overwintering larvae from rice and water-oat fields during the winter of 2010. The parasitism rate(More)
Predation is an interaction during which an organism kills and feeds on another organism. Past and current interest in studying predation in terrestrial habitats has yielded a number of methods to assess invertebrate predation events in terrestrial ecosystems. We provide a decision tree to select appropriate methods for individual studies. For each method,(More)
Variation in population size over time can influence our ability to identify landscape-moderated differences in community assembly. To date, however, most studies at the landscape scale only cover snapshots in time, thereby overlooking the temporal dynamics of populations and communities. In this paper, we present data that illustrate how temporal variation(More)