Learn More
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by misfolded proteins or cytotoxic drugs can kill cells and although activation of this pathway has been implicated in the etiology of certain degenerative disorders its mechanism remains unresolved. Bim, a proapoptotic BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 family is required for initiation of apoptosis induced by cytokine(More)
BACKGROUND Uganda has long been successful in controlling the HIV epidemic; however, there is evidence that HIV prevalence and incidence are increasing again. Data on the HIV/STI epidemic among sex workers are so far lacking from Uganda. This paper describes the baseline epidemiology of HIV/STI in a newly established cohort of women involved in high-risk(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) and behavioural interventions are the main methods to prevent HIV in developing countries. We aimed to assess the effect of these interventions on incidence of HIV-1 and other sexually-transmitted infections. METHODS We randomly allocated all adults living in 18 communities in rural Uganda to(More)
Diarrhea is frequent among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but few interventions are available for people in Africa. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a home-based, safe water intervention on the incidence and severity of diarrhea among persons with HIV living in rural Uganda. Between April 2001 and November 2002,(More)
BACKGROUND We sought to investigate renal function in previously untreated symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults with CD4(+) cell counts of <200 cells/mm(3) who were undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa. METHODS The study was an observational analysis within a randomized trial of ART management strategies that(More)
Genetic association studies have implicated the TaqI A1 allele of the human dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) as a risk-determining factor for alcohol dependency. However, as alcoholism is a disease of polygenic inheritance, the percentage of overall disease variance explained by the TaqI A1 allele is small. In searching for other genetic loci that may,(More)
BACKGROUND The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), a subtype of glutamate receptor, is essential for normal neurodevelopment. The brain growth spurt, which is both prenatal and postnatal in the rat, is a time when the brain is especially sensitive to the effects of a teratogen, such as alcohol. Changes in NMDAR function after early perinatal exposure to(More)
OBJECTIVES To assess bias in estimates of STD prevalence in population based surveys resulting from diagnostic error and selection bias. To evaluate the effects of such biases on STD prevalence estimates from three community randomised trials of STD treatment for HIV prevention in Masaka and Rakai, Uganda and Mwanza, Tanzania. METHODS Age and sex(More)
Genetic association studies investigating the role of the +118A allele of the human mu-opioid receptor gene in risk for alcohol dependency have produced inconsistent findings, possibly because of the failure to recognize sampling methodology difficulties inherent in association studies of polygenic disorders. We examined the frequency of the AA genotype and(More)
Proteins of the Bcl-2 family are critical regulators of apoptosis, but how its BH3-only members activate the essential effectors Bax and Bak remains controversial. The indirect activation model suggests that they simply must neutralize all of the prosurvival Bcl-2 family members, whereas the direct activation model proposes that Bim and Bid must activate(More)