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Excessive airway obstruction is the cause of symptoms and abnormal lung function in asthma. As airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the effecter controlling airway calibre, it is suspected that dysfunction of ASM contributes to the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the precise role of ASM in the series of events leading to asthmatic symptoms is not clear. It is(More)
RATIONALE Oxidative stress is a key contributor in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis caused by cigarette smoking. NRF2, a redox-sensitive transcription factor, dissociates from its inhibitor, KEAP1, to induce antioxidant expression that inhibits oxidative stress. OBJECTIVES To determine the link between severity of COPD, oxidative(More)
RATIONALE Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) is a common and disabling lung disease for which there are few therapeutic options. OBJECTIVES We reasoned that gene expression profiling of COPD lungs could reveal previously unidentified disease pathways. METHODS Forty-eight human lung samples were obtained from tissue resected from five nonsmokers, 21(More)
It has been shown that deep inspiration (DI) taken before application of bronchoconstricting stimuli causes a reduction in the subsequent bronchoconstriction; a fast DI has a greater inhibitory effect than a slow DI. We hypothesize that periodic length changes imposed on a relaxed airway smooth muscle (ASM) would attenuate subsequent bronchoconstriction by(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified loci reproducibly associated with pulmonary diseases; however, the molecular mechanism underlying these associations are largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to discover genetic variants affecting gene expression in human lung tissue, to refine susceptibility loci for asthma identified in(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding the genetic basis of airflow obstruction and smoking behaviour is key to determining the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We used UK Biobank data to study the genetic causes of smoking behaviour and lung health. METHODS We sampled individuals of European ancestry from UK Biobank, from the middle and(More)
A combined genome-wide association and linkage study was used to identify loci causing variation in cystic fibrosis lung disease severity. We identified a significant association (P = 3.34 × 10(-8)) near EHF and APIP (chr11p13) in p.Phe508del homozygotes (n = 1,978). The association replicated in p.Phe508del homozygotes (P = 0.006) from a separate family(More)
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes (CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4) have been reproducibly associated with nicotine dependence, smoking behaviors, and lung cancer risk. Of the few reports that have focused on early smoking behaviors, association results have been mixed. This meta-analysis examines early smoking phenotypes and SNPs in the gene(More)
There are over 100 genes that have been reported to be associated with asthma or related phenotypes. In 2006-2007 alone there were 53 novel candidate gene associations reported in the literature. Replication of genetic associations and demonstration of a functional mechanism for the associated variants are needed to confirm an asthma susceptibility gene.(More)
PURPOSE To retrospectively compare thin-section computed tomographic (CT) scores obtained with five scoring systems for assessment of pulmonary disease in children with cystic fibrosis and to determine additional value of bronchial and arterial dimension measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS Scores obtained with five thin-section CT scoring systems were(More)