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The bacterial second messenger bis-(3'-5') cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) has emerged as a central regulator for biofilm formation. Increased cellular c-di-GMP levels lead to stable cell attachment, which in Pseudomonas fluorescens requires the transmembrane receptor LapD. LapD exhibits a conserved and widely used modular architecture(More)
Green/EFA Group in the European Parliament – Securing a sustainable energy future in an enlarged European Union – April 2001, p.9. Andrew Simms – An environmental war economy: the lessons of ecological debt and global warming (New Economics Foundation, 2001). European Commission – Progress report on the response to the Green Paper: Towards a European(More)
In Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1 the availability of inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an environmental signal that controls biofilm formation through a cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) signaling pathway. In low Pi conditions, a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) RapA is expressed, depleting cellular c-di-GMP and causing the loss of a critical outer-membrane adhesin(More)
UNLABELLED Animal-associated bacteria (microbiota) affect host behaviors and physiological traits. To identify bacterial genetic determinants of microbiota-responsive host traits, we employed a metagenome-wide association (MGWA) approach in two steps. First, we measured two microbiota-responsive host traits, development time and triglyceride (TAG) content,(More)
Symbiosis is often characterized by co-evolutionary changes in the genomes of the partners involved. An understanding of these changes can provide insight into the nature of the relationship, including the mechanisms that initiate and maintain an association between organisms. In this study we examined the genome sequences of bacteria isolated from the(More)
Animals bear communities of gut microorganisms with substantial effects on animal nutrition, but the host genetic basis of these effects is unknown. Here we use Drosophila to demonstrate substantial among-genotype variation in the effects of eliminating the gut microbiota on five host nutritional indices (weight, protein, lipid, glucose and glycogen(More)
This article focuses on the disjuncture between regulatory problems generated by the rapid development of, and subsequent trade in crop GMOs, and the ability of existing mechanisms of international governance to manage human and ecological risks associated with the new technology. The article assesses the ways in which globalisation of economic activity is(More)