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Fano factor analysis was used to characterize the spike trains of single medullary neurons with sympathetic nerve-related activity in cats that were decerebrate or anesthetized with Dial-urethan or urethan. For this purpose, values (Fano factor) of the variance of the number of extracellularly recorded spikes divided by the mean number of spikes were(More)
In 48 conscious resting subjects we examined the temporal coupling of heart beat timing and the onset of inspiration (cardioventilatory coupling), and the relationship between coupling and spectral indices of autonomic function. Using the proportional Shannon entropy (SH(alpha)) of the RI(-1) interval (interval between inspiration and the preceding ECG R(More)
We studied infectious and immune mechanisms in demyelinating disease. The clinical diagnosis in this study of 313 consecutive cases of multiple sclerosis (MS) was based on the clinical conclusions of two or more neurologists and definite abnormalities in CSF IgG. Measurement of antibodies to six microbial agents was compared in 313 patients with MS and 406(More)
We examined interbreath interval (IBI) time series of 19 term infants during active and quiet sleep for fractal properties using Fano factor analysis. For each time series we calculated the fractal exponent (alpha), comparing alpha for the original time series with two forms of surrogate data, a temporally independent surrogate set and an autoregressive(More)
To characterize the antibody response to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in MS, we studied serum anti-EBV nuclear antigen (anti-EBNA) and anti-EBV capsid antigen (anti-EBVCA) titers. Both titers were assayed in 93 age- and sex-matched pairs of MS patients and controls. Anti-EBVCA titers were measured by indirect immunofluorescence and anti-EBNA titers by(More)
OBJECTIVES We assessed the impact of restaurant menu calorie labels on food choices and intake. METHODS Participants in a study dinner (n=303) were randomly assigned to either (1) a menu without calorie labels (no calorie labels), (2) a menu with calorie labels (calorie labels), or (3) a menu with calorie labels and a label stating the recommended daily(More)
The case of a 4 1/2-year-old boy with congenital vertical ocular motor apraxia who was otherwise developmentally and neurologically normal is reported. The presence of perinatal hypoxia in this patient may have been etiologic. While the presence of a supranuclear vertical ocular motor abnormality usually suggests a serious, acquired neurologic or systemic(More)
In a group of spontaneously breathing anaesthetized subjects, we examined the ability of simple spectral and non-linear methods to detect the presence of cardioventilatory coupling in heart rate time series. Using the proportional Shannon entropy (H(RI-1)) of the RI(-1) interval (interval between inspiration and the preceding ECG R wave) as a measure of(More)
We examined spectral components of beat to beat variability in AC and DC signals of the reflectance photoplethysmograph at finger and earlobe sites in 20 resting volunteers and 20 patients during propofol, alfentanil, isoflurane, nitrous oxide anaesthesia. We observed that at rest, the majority of spectral power at both sites and in both signals was in the(More)
This study examines respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in the isoflurane-anesthetized rat. In fifteen female Sprague-Dawley rats, we recorded continuous ECG and respiratory airflow before and after bilateral vagotomy. RSA was assessed using power spectral analysis and by plotting the normalised changes in heart period as a function of the time during the(More)