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Schistosoma mansoni is the primary causative agent of schistosomiasis, which affects 200 million individuals in 74 countries. We generated 163,000 expressed-sequence tags (ESTs) from normalized cDNA libraries from six selected developmental stages of the parasite, resulting in 31,000 assembled sequences and 92% sampling of an estimated 14,000 gene(More)
• Understanding the dynamics of rhizosphere microbial communities is essential for predicting future ecosystem function, yet most research focuses on either spatial or temporal processes, ignoring combined spatio-temporal effects. • Using pyrosequencing, we examined the spatio-temporal dynamics of a functionally important community of rhizosphere microbes,(More)
The blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni can live for years in the hepatic portal system of its human host and so must possess very effective mechanisms of immune evasion. The key to understanding how these operate lies in defining the molecular organisation of the exposed parasite surface. The adult worm is covered by a syncytial tegument, bounded externally by(More)
Schistosomiasis, caused by parasitic helminths, remains a serious human disease in the tropics. Cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni infect their hosts by direct skin penetration, aided by secretions from acetabular and head glands. Both proteolytic and immunomodulatory properties have been ascribed to the released material, but to date only five isoforms of(More)
We have investigated the development of the schistosome egg and its secretions in order to understand how it migrates through gut tissues and also initiates pathology in the liver. We show by electron microscopy that the subshell envelope is absent in the newly deposited egg, but appears very early and differentiates as development progresses. In the mature(More)
The phloem transport system is a complex tissue that primarily carries photoassimilate from source to sink. Its function depends on anucleate sieve elements (SE) supported by companion cells (CC). In this study, SE sap was sampled and the protein identity of soluble proteins was determined with the aim of understanding the function of proteins within the(More)
Schistosoma mansoni is responsible for the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis that affects 210 million people in 76 countries. Here we present analysis of the 363 megabase nuclear genome of the blood fluke. It encodes at least 11,809 genes, with an unusual intron size distribution, and new families of micro-exon genes that undergo frequent(More)
The lung schistosomulum of Schistosoma mansoni is a validated target of protective immunity elicited in vaccinated mice. To identify genes expressed at this stage we constructed a microarray, representing 3088 contigs and singlets, with cDNA derived from in vitro cultured larvae and used it to screen RNA from seven life-cycle stages. Clustering of genes by(More)
The surface tegument of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a syncytial cytoplasmic layer bounded externally by a plasma membrane and covered by a glycocalyx, which constitutes the interface between the parasite and its ruminant host. The tegument's interaction with the immune system during the fluke's protracted migration from the gut lumen through the(More)
Nine proteins secreted in the saliva of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum were identified by a proteomics approach using GE-LC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS, with reference to EST and genomic sequence data for A. pisum. Four proteins were identified by their sequences: a homolog of angiotensin-converting enzyme (an M2 metalloprotease), an M1 zinc-dependant(More)