Peter Cummings

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OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month community-based intervention on falls and risk factors (balance, lower extremity strength, and mobility) in community-living older adults. METHODS Four hundred fifty-three sedentary adults (65 years old or older) were randomized to either a multifaceted intervention (3(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate new instructional methods for teaching high school students cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) knowledge, actions and skills. METHODS We conducted a cluster-controlled trial of 3 instructional interventions among Seattle area high school students, with random allocation based on classrooms,(More)
When a study outcome is rare in all strata used for an analysis, the odds ratio estimate of causal effects will approximate the risk ratio; therefore, odds ratios from most case-control studies can be interpreted as risk ratios. However, if a study outcome is common, the odds ratio will be further from 1 than the risk ratio. There is debate regarding the(More)
BACKGROUND To describe the incidence and outcome of injuries due to firearms, we conducted a population-based study of fatal and nonfatal gunshot wounds in three cities: Memphis, Tennessee; Seattle; and Galveston, Texas. METHODS Records of the police, medical examiners, ambulance crews, and hospital emergency departments and hospital admissions were(More)
The authors compared US motor vehicle and motorcycle mortality rates during periods when each of several alcohol-related laws were in effect with mortality rates during other periods. During the period 1980-1997, there were 792,184 deaths due to motor vehicle crashes and 63,052 deaths due to motorcycle crashes. An estimated 26% and 49% of these fatalities,(More)
Injury is an increasingly significant health problem in most low-income countries. However, strategies for preventing injury have not been well addressed. The present study was carried out to measure the incidence and outcome of various mechanisms of injury in Ghana in order to provide data for use in developing priorities for injury prevention efforts. For(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the association of passenger seat position with the risk of death and serious injury for passengers in traffic crashes. METHODS Using 1993-2000 data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Crashworthiness Data System (CDS), the risk ratio for death and serious injury was estimated for rear seat passengers compared(More)
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine whether purchase of a handgun from a licensed dealer is associated with the risk of homicide or suicide and whether any association varies in relation to time since purchase. METHODS A case-control study was done among the members of a large health maintenance organization. Case subjects were the 353(More)
CONTEXT Physicians have been encouraged to counsel families about risks associated with gun ownership, but the effectiveness of physician counseling regarding gun safety is unknown. OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness of gun safety counseling during well-child care visits. DESIGN Group randomized, controlled trial. Physicians, nurse practitioners,(More)