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BACKGROUND The absence (deletion allele [D]) of a 287-base pair marker in the ACE gene is associated with higher ACE levels than its presence (insertion allele [I]). If renin-angiotensin systems regulate left ventricular (LV) growth, then individuals of DD genotype might show a greater hypertrophic response than those of II genotype. We tested this(More)
BACKGROUND Passive smoking has been linked to an increased risk of dying from atherosclerotic heart disease. Since endothelial dysfunction is an early feature of atherogenesis and occurs in young adults who actively smoke cigarettes, we hypothesized that passive smoking might also be associated with endothelial damage in healthy young-adult nonsmokers. (More)
OBJECTIVES The present study was designed to assess whether exercise training can enhance endothelium-dependent dilatation in healthy young men. BACKGROUND Exercise has been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms for this benefit are unclear. Endothelial dysfunction is an early event in atherogenesis, and animal studies(More)
In this paper, I set up scenarios where the mean-variance capital asset pricing model is true and where it is false. Then I investigate whether the coefficients from regressions of population expected excess returns on population betas, and expected excess returns on betas and size, allow us to distinguish between the scenarios. I show that the coefficients(More)
DNA fingerprinting and mitochondrial DNA analyses have not been used in combination to study relatedness in natural populations. We present an approach that involves defining the mean fingerprint similarities among individuals thought to be unrelated because they have different mtDNA genotypes. Two classes of related individuals are identified by their(More)
BACKGROUND Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis of childhood with widespread vascular endothelial damage in the acute stage. Long-term complications, such as myocardial infarction and death, are recognized, but the extent and nature of late vascular abnormalities that might predispose to these events have not been studied. METHODS AND RESULTS We(More)
BACKGROUND The function of local renin-angiotensin systems in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue remains largely unknown. A polymorphism of the human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been identified in which the insertion (I) rather than deletion (D) allele is associated with lower ACE activity in body tissues and increased response to some(More)
BACKGROUND A family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) in a first-degree relative is an independent risk factor for coronary disease. Both genetic and environmental influences are likely to be responsible and may interact, but their relative importance is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS We studied endothelial function in 50 first-degree(More)
OBJECTIVES This study sought to examine whether endothelial function is impaired in the large vessels of asymptomatic young adults with insulin-dependent diabetes and whether endothelial dysfunction is related to duration or control of diabetes, small-vessel disease or other vascular risk factors. BACKGROUND Endothelial dysfunction is an early event in(More)