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Excessive N fertilization in intensive agricultural areas of China has resulted in serious environmental problems because of atmospheric, soil, and water enrichment with reactive N of agricultural origin. This study examines grain yields and N loss pathways using a synthetic approach in 2 of the most intensive double-cropping systems in China: waterlogged(More)
Although silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element both on the surface of the Earth's crust and in soils, it has not yet been listed among the essential elements for higher plants. However, the beneficial role of Si in stimulating the growth and development of many plant species has been generally recognized. Silicon is known to effectively mitigate(More)
Soil acidification is a major problem in soils of intensive Chinese agricultural systems. We used two nationwide surveys, paired comparisons in numerous individual sites, and several long-term monitoring-field data sets to evaluate changes in soil acidity. Soil pH declined significantly (P < 0.001) from the 1980s to the 2000s in the major Chinese(More)
Three pot experiments were conducted to investigate the role of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) in Zn uptake by red clover. Plants inoculated with Glomus mosseae and uninoculated controls were grown in a sterile calcareous soil in 'Plexiglas' (Acrylic) containers with two nylon net partitions (30 microm mesh) to separate the central root zone from the two outer(More)
The annual nitrogen (N) budget and groundwater nitrate-N concentrations were studied in the field in three major intensive cropping systems in Shandong province, north China. In the greenhouse vegetable systems the annual N inputs from fertilizers, manures and irrigation water were 1358, 1881 and 402 kg N ha(-1) on average, representing 2.5, 37.5 and 83.8(More)
China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen. These emissions result in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with implications for human and ecosystem health, greenhouse gas balances and biological diversity. However, information on the magnitude(More)
Total cellular RNA has commonly been prepared from plant material utilizing methods involving CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide), SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), phenol/chloroform, or guanidine hydrochloride (Logemann et al, 1987). Although very effective in the preparation of intact RNA from leaf tissue, when applied to cultured plant cells these methods(More)
In a pot experiment, red clover (Trifolium pratense) was grown in sterilized Zn-amended low available P soil (0, 50 or 400 mg Zn kg(-1)) with or without 100 mg kg(-1) added P and with or without inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus G. mosseae. When the plants were harvested after 40 days, AM colonization of the roots was still at an early(More)
We investigated uptake of Cd by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) maize inoculated with Glomus mosseae from a low-P sandy calcareous soil in two glasshouse experiments. Plants grew in pots containing two compartments, one for root and hyphal growth and one for hyphal development only. Three levels of Cd (0, 25 and 100 mg kg(-1)) and two of P (20 and 60 mg kg(-1))(More)
The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAE concentrations in the soils ranged widely from 0.15 to 9.68 mg kg(-1) with a median value of 1.70 mg kg(-1), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP),(More)