Peter Callas

Learn More
Smokers not currently interested in quitting (N = 616) were randomized to receive telephone-based (a) reduction counseling plus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) plus brief advice to quit, (b) motivational advice plus brief advice, or (c) no treatment. More smokers in the reduction (43%) and motivational (51%) conditions made a 24-hr quit attempt over 6(More)
BACKGROUND Both randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies have linked congestive heart failure (CHF) case management (CM) to decreased readmissions and improved outcomes in mostly homogeneous settings. The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to test the effect of CHF CM on the 90-day readmission rate in a more heterogeneous setting. (More)
OBJECTIVE Dexmedetomidine (DEX) may provide a sedation level that enables sleep and communication, with less amnesia and pain medication requirements, during mechanical ventilation. Our study directly assessed patient-perceived satisfaction with coronary artery bypass graft surgery after administration of DEX or propofol for intensive care unit (ICU)(More)
Optimal care for patients with diabetes is difficult to achieve in clinical practice. To evaluate the impact of a registry and decision support system on processes of care, and physiologic control. Randomized trial with clustering at the practice level, involving 7,412 adults with diabetes in 64 primary care practices in the Northeast. Provider decision(More)
BACKGROUND Whether smokers with a past history (PH) but not current history of alcohol dependence are more nicotine dependent than smokers with no such history (NH) is unclear. The present study was an experimental test of this hypothesis. METHOD Twenty PH and 10 NH smokers abstained from smoking for 16 hr on each of 4 days. On each of 3 days,(More)
Most smoking cessation programs advise abrupt rather than gradual cessation. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of gradual cessation (n=297) vs. abrupt cessation (n=299) vs. minimal treatment (n=150) among smokers who wanted to quit now and preferred to quit gradually. Participants were recruited via newspaper and radio advertisements. The gradual(More)
Nine former, 11 never, and 10 current smokers abstained from smoking for 16 h on each of 4 days. On each of 3 days, participants received three doses per day of 0-, 2-, or 4-mg nicotine gum in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. To examine subjective effects, participants completed the POMS, ARCI, and other ratings before and after each dose. To(More)
This study was conducted to identify factors associated with alcohol use among early adolescents. A survey was administered to all Grade 7 and 8 students in 16 Vermont school districts. The questionnaire covered demographics, alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, and measures of psychosocial mediators of alcohol use drawn from social cognitive theory. These(More)
This research was conducted to examine the effect of model choice on the epidemiologic interpretation of occupational cohort data. Three multiplicative models commonly employed in the analysis of occupational cohort studies--proportional hazards. Poisson, and logistic regression--were used to analyze data from an historical cohort study of workers exposed(More)
Patients injured in rural areas die at roughly twice the rate of those patients with similar injuries in urban areas. A multitude of explanations have been suggested for higher mortality rates from trauma in the rural areas of the United States. Since rural emergency room (ER) staff see far fewer traumas than ER staff at large metropolitan trauma centers,(More)