Peter C. Whybrow

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We report the reliability and validity of the Internal State Scale, a self-report instrument for the simultaneous assessment of severity of manic and depressive symptoms. The Internal State Scale consists of four empirically derived subscales: Activation, Well-Being, Perceived Conflict, and the Depression Index. All subscales had good internal consistency(More)
Members of the National Depressive and Manic-Depressive Association who have bipolar disorder were surveyed. 59% of respondents had their first symptoms during childhood or adolescence. Long delays between symptom onset, treatment-seeking, and receipt of a bipolar diagnosis were common. 45% of respondents currently experience frequent recurrences.(More)
OBJECTIVES This 2013 update of the practice guidelines for the biological treatment of unipolar depressive disorders was developed by an international Task Force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP). The goal has been to systematically review all available evidence pertaining to the treatment of unipolar depressive(More)
OBJECTIVE The delayed onset of therapeutic response to antidepressants remains a major problem in the treatment of depression. Among the strategies to accelerate response to treatment, the early addition of thyroid hormone to antidepressants has been suggested as a viable method. The authors performed a meta-analysis of the literature on the use of thyroid(More)
BACKGROUND Using long-term daily mood records obtained from patients with bipolar disorder and normal subjects, we sought to determine the temporal pattern of mood in bipolar disorder. METHODS Time series of 1.0 to 2.5 years from seven rapid-cycling patients with bipolar disorder and 28 normal controls were obtained. These were evaluated with several(More)
BACKGROUND Early recognition of the prodromal symptoms of bipolar disorder, combined with a patient action plan, may help to prevent relapses. Sleep disturbances are frequent warning signs of both mania and depression. This study used cross correlation analysis to characterize the relationship between mood, sleep and bedrest in longitudinal data. METHODS(More)
Eleven patients with rapid cycling bipolar affective disorder whose symptoms were refractory to their current medication regimen were entered into an open trial of high-dose levothyroxine sodium added to a stable regimen of those medications. At baseline, all patients exhibited a rapid cycling pattern and were evaluated prospectively through at least one(More)
These practical guidelines for the biological treatment of unipolar depressive disorders in primary care settings were developed by an international Task Force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP). They embody the results of a systematic review of all available clinical and scientific evidence pertaining to the treatment of(More)
CONTEXT Hypothyroidism is frequently associated with subtle behavioral and psychiatric symptoms. The consequences of inadequate thyroid hormone availability to brain metabolism are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE This study assessed the relationships between neuropsychiatric symptoms and changes in relative regional cerebral glucose metabolism in hypothyroid(More)
These guidelines for the treatment of unipolar depressive disorders systematically review available evidence pertaining to the biological treatment of patients with major depression and produce a series of practice recommendations that are clinically and scientifically meaningful based on the available evidence. These guidelines are intended for use by all(More)