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To study the genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in CNS functioning, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was measured in 213 twin pairs age 16 years. EEG was measured in 91 MZ and 122 DZ twins. To quantify sex differences in the genetic architecture, EEG was measured in female and male same-sex twins and in opposite-sex twins. EEG(More)
EEG coherence measures the covariation in electrical brain activity between two locations on the scalp and is used to study connectivity between cortical regions. The aim of this study was to determine the heritability of EEG coherence. Coherence was measured in a group of 213 16-yr-old twin pairs. By including male and female twin pairs in the sample, sex(More)
Miller-Fisher syndrome is an autoimmune neuropathy characterized by ataxia, areflexia and ophthalmoplegia, and in the majority of cases the presence of high titres of anti-GQ1b ganglioside antibodies. In an ex vivo model, human and mouse anti-GQ1b antibodies have been shown previously to induce a complement-dependent alpha-latrotoxin-like effect on the(More)
In the Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) variant of the Guillain-Barré syndrome, weakness is restricted to extraocular muscles and occasionally other craniobulbar muscles. Most MFS patients have serum antibodies against ganglioside type GQ1b of which the pathophysiological relevance is unclear. We examined the in vitro effects of MFS sera, MFS IgG, and a human(More)
In myasthenia gravis, loss of acetylcholine receptors at motor end-plates is induced by antireceptor autoantibodies. At end-plates in rats in which myasthenia gravis-like symptoms are induced by chronic treatment with alpha-bungarotoxin, acetylcholine release is increased. Within muscles from such rats there is a strong correlation between the increase of(More)
Cramer et al. present an original and interesting network perspective on comorbidity and contrast this perspective with a more traditional interpretation of comorbidity in terms of latent variable theory. My commentary focuses on the relationship between the two perspectives; that is, it aims to qualify the presumed contrast between interpretations in terms(More)
At its best, connectivity mapping can offer researchers great insight into how spatially disparate regions of the human brain coordinate activity during brain processing. A recent investigation conducted by Smith and colleagues (2011) on methods for estimating connectivity maps suggested that those which attempt to ascertain the direction of influence among(More)
1. Rats were injected once every 48 h with alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha BTX) for periods up to 6 weeks. Injections caused weakness of facial muscles which lasted about 8 h. Hemidiaphragms were dissected for biochemical and electrophysiological measurements. 2. In muscles from animals treated for 2-3 weeks with toxin, the binding of 125I-alpha BTX was reduced(More)
In this article an overview is given of traditional methodological approaches to stagewise cognitive developmental research. These approaches are evaluated and integrated on the basis of catastrophe theory. In particular, catastrophe theory specifies a set of common criteria for testing the discontinuity hypothesis proposed by Piaget. Separate criteria(More)
As a method to ascertain the structure of intra-individual variation, P-technique has met difficulties in the handling of a lagged covariance structure. A new statistical technique, coined dynamic factor analysis, is proposed, which accounts for the entire lagged covariance function of an arbitrary second order stationary time series. Moreover, dynamic(More)