Peter C Howard

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Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin isolated from Fusarium fungi that contaminate crops worldwide. A previous study demonstrated that FB1 promoted preneoplastic foci in initiated rats and induced hepatocellular carcinomas in BD IX rats at 50 parts per million (ppm), but fundamental dose-response data were not available to assist in setting regulatory(More)
Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced worldwide by Fusarium fungi, principally F. moniliforme. The fungus is present in virtually all harvested corn, but the toxins produced are variable. The toxins, especially fumonisin B1, cause mild to fatal diseases in animals, with peculiar species specificity for the dominant signs of toxicity. The mechanism of toxicity(More)
Fumonisin B1(FB1) is a fungal metabolite of Fusarium verticillioides (= F. moniliforme), a fungus that grows on many crops worldwide. Previous studies demonstrated that male BD IX rats consuming diets containing 50 ppm fumonisin B1 developed hepatocellular carcinomas. In our recent studies, diets containing FB1 at 50 ppm or higher concentrations induced(More)
Fumonisins are produced by Fusarium moniliforme F. verticillioides) and other Fusarium that grow on corn worldwide. They cause fatal toxicoses of horses and swine. Their effects in humans are unclear, but epidemiologic evidence suggests that consumption of fumonisin-contaminated corn contributes to human esophageal cancer in southern Africa and China. Much(More)
The structures of selected phenolic metabolites of 2- and 3-nitrofluoranthene have been analyzed. 1H NMR spectral analysis at 500 MHz using one- and two-dimensional methods proves that the site of hydroxy substitution in two metabolites previously reported as 3-nitrofluoranthen-8-ol and 3-nitrofluoranthen-9-ol had been reversed. A third and previously(More)
Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is one of a number of mycotoxins produced by fungi, especially Fusarium sp. As a contaminant of many maize-derived products, this toxin is associated with a variety of animal diseases, including esophageal cancer and possibly neural tube defects in humans. We have investigated the embryotoxic potential of this compound in New Zealand(More)
Fumonisin B1 is associated with various animal and human carcinomas and toxicoses, including leukoencephalomalacia, hepatocarcinoma, pulmonary edema and esophageal carcinoma. We have examined the cellular effects of fumonisin B1 in vitro using cellular model systems relevant to potential human target tissues. Although fumonisin B1 has been described as a(More)
Fumonisin B1 stimulates apoptosis in a variety of cell types and tissues. We examined the role of sphingolipid changes in fumonisin B1-stimulated apoptosis. Sphinganine accumulated rapidly, sphingosine levels remained unchanged, and ceramides decreased during fumonisin B1 exposure. Increased DNA fragmentation, decreased viability, and apoptotic morphology(More)
Fumonisin B1 (FB1), the major mycotoxin from Fusarium moniliforme, has been implicated as a causative agent in several animal and human diseases. Despite animal toxicity studies and human epidemiological studies of FB1, knowledge of its reproductive effects is scarce. In this study, one of a series of proposed studies that will allow extrapolation to(More)
The nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 1-nitropyrene is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The role of cytochromes P-450 in the human metabolism of [3H]-1-nitropyrene was investigated using human liver microsomes. The range of microsomal metabolism from 16 individual liver specimens was 0.13 to 0.99 nmol/min/mg protein. Using 3 microsomal samples(More)