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Separate studies have implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) or amygdala-related regions in processing aversive stimuli, but their relationships to each other and to appetitive motivational systems are poorly understood. We show that neurons in the recently identified GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which receive a major LHb input, project(More)
Considerable evidence suggests that various discrete nuclei within the amygdala complex are critically involved in the assignment of emotional significance or value to events through associative learning. Much of this evidence comes from aversive conditioning procedures. For example, lesions of either basolateral amygdala (ABL) or the central nucleus (CN)(More)
Relations between posttraining reinforcer devaluation and Pavlovian-instrumental transfer were examined in 2 experiments. When a single reinforcer was used, extended training of the instrumental response increased transfer but reduced devaluation effects. When multiple instrumental reinforcers were used, both reinforcer-specific transfer and devaluation(More)
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) are critical for using learned representations of outcomes to guide behavior. Neurophysiological findings suggest complementary roles in which the BLA acquires associations between cues and outcomes and the OFC subsequently uses them to guide behavior. Here, we have used a reinforcer devaluation(More)
  • P C Holland
  • 1977
The role of the conditioned stimulus (CS) as a determinant of the form of the Pavlovian conditioned response (CR) was investigated in five experiments. Both stabilimeter measures of general activity and detailed observations of the behavior of the rat subjects in the presence of CSs anticipatory to a food unconditioned stimulus (US) were obtained. In(More)
The present study examined the role of an amygdalo-nigrostriatal pathway in associative learning. An asymmetrical lesion model was used to test whether a circuit from the amygdala central nucleus to the dorsolateral striatum, via the substantia nigra, is critical for mediating conditioned orienting responses. Rats with an asymmetrical lesion, consisting of(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the risk of suicidal behaviour within clinical trials of antidepressants in adults. DESIGN Meta-analysis of 372 double blind randomised placebo controlled trials. SETTING Drug development programmes for any indication in adults. PARTICIPANTS 99 231 adults assigned to antidepressants or placebo. Median age was 42 and 63.1% were(More)
Experimental animals that are trained to associate a cue with food consumption when hunger prevails will subsequently consume a greater amount of food when that cue is presented under conditions of satiety. Previously, we showed that this phenomenon of conditioned potentiation of feeding is abolished by a neurotoxic lesion that encompasses the basolateral(More)
Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CSs) for food can enhance both the performance of instrumental responses that earn food (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer; PIT) and the consumption of food itself (CS-potentiated feeding). After a single phase of Pavlovian training, each rat was tested in both PIT and potentiated feeding tasks. Rats with lesions of the central(More)
Recent research suggests that the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons innervating the cortex play a role in attentional functions in both primates and rodents. Among the cortical targets of these projections in primates is the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), a region shown to be critically involved in the regulation of attention. Recent anatomical studies(More)