Fifty years ago, Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen outlined a simple but sophisticated idea of pest control predicated on the complementary action of chemical and biological control. This integrated control concept has since been a driving force and conceptual foundation for all integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The four basic elements include… (More)
The three keys to whitefly management are sampling, effective chemical use, and avoidance. This study examines factors relevant to the latter two keys in the context of Arizona's cotton pest spectrum. Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are central to Arizona's success in whitefly management. The basic usage guidelines developed for the IGRs—initial treatment… (More)
BACKGROUND Many polyphagous pests sequentially use crops and uncultivated habitats in landscapes dominated by annual crops. As these habitats may contribute in increasing or decreasing pest density in fields of a specific crop, understanding the scale and temporal variability of source and sink effects is critical for managing landscapes to enhance pest… (More)
Changes in insecticide use, available pest control technologies, and local crop ecology together with severely depressed cotton prices place a renewed premium on Lygus control decision aids for Arizona cotton. As part of an ongoing program to develop research-based Lygus management recommendations, we investigated the impact of various timings of chemical… (More)
Direct-observation studies were conducted in replicated experimental plots to identify causes and estimate rates of mortality of whiteflies in cotton over the course of six generations from late June through late October. In plots receiving no whitefly or Lygus insecticides, predation and dislodgment were major sources of egg and nymphal mortality, and… (More)
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When other means fail to avoid damaging levels of an insect pest population, chemical control becomes necessary. Chemical control is a variable farm input which should be optimized to reduce economic damage by the pest while maximizing profit and minimizing exposure to secondary pest outbreaks, pest resurgence , and risks of insecticide resistance. To best… (More)
Lygus became the number one pest of cotton in 1998 with statewide losses of over $16 million in spite of individual costs to the grower of over $55/A for control. Selective technologies for whitefly and pink bollworm control reduce the number of broad spectrum sprays that incidentally control Lygus. Control of Lygus depends mainly on just two related… (More)