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OBJECTIVE To evaluate age-dependent changes in fetal kidney measurements with MRI. PATIENTS AND METHODS Fetal MRI examinations were used to study the kidney length (218 fetuses), signal intensities of renal tissue, renal pelvis, and liver tissue on T2-weighted images (223 fetuses), and the whole-kidney apparent diffusion coefficient (107 fetuses). A 1.5 T(More)
Normal fetal brain maturation can be studied by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from the 18th gestational week (GW) to term, and relies primarily on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences. These maturational changes must be interpreted with a knowledge of the histological background and the temporal course of the respective developmental(More)
The goal of this study was to provide a representative description of the normal placenta with contrast medium-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to determine a standard of reference. One hundred consecutive singleton pregnancies were investigated by MRI without application of a contrast medium. The mean gestational age (GA) at the time of(More)
The development of ultrafast sequences has led to a significant improvement in fetal MRI. Imaging protocols have to be adjusted to the rapidly developing fetal central nervous system (CNS) and to the clinical question. Sequence parameters must be changed to cope with the respective developmental stage, to produce images free from motion artefacts and to(More)
This review deals with the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the human fetal abdomen. Imaging findings are correlated with current knowledge of human fetal anatomy and physiology, which are crucial to understand and interpret fetal abdominal MRI scans. As fetal MRI covers a period of more than 20 weeks, which is characterized not only(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Infants with very low birth weight are at high risk for cerebral lesions. Although supratentorial brain damage is a common radiologic finding, posterior fossa pathologies are rare. We studied the morphology of cerebellar involvement in a large series of 28 premature infants born before the 30th week of gestation to define typical(More)
Anatomical and functional hemispheric lateralization originates from differential gene expression and leads to asymmetric structural brain development, which initially appears in the perisylvian regions by 26 gestational weeks (GWs). In this in vivo neuroimaging study, we demonstrated a predominant pattern of temporal lobe (TL) asymmetry in a large cohort(More)
The assessment of the urinary system is typically performed by ultrasound. Nevertheless, an ultrasound may be inconclusive in fetuses with renal diseases that result in anhydramnios or oligohydramnios. In such cases, and in other cases in which ultrasound is limited, further investigation with MR should be considered. In the following article, we will(More)
Normal fetal lung development is a complex process influenced by mechanical and many biochemical factors. In addition to ultrasound, fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) constitutes a new method to investigate this process in vivo during the second and third trimester. The techniques of MRI volumetry, assessment of signal intensities, and MRI spectroscopy(More)
PURPOSE To assess the utility of an MRI-compatible incubator (INC) by comparing. METHODS In a retrospective study, the clinical and radiological aspects of 129 neonatal MRI examinations during a 3 year period were analyzed. Routine protocols including fast spin-echo T2-weighted (w) sequences, axial T1w, Gradient-echo, diffusion sequences, and 3D T1(More)